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Tectono-Magmatic Evolution of the South Atlantic Continental Margins with Respect to Opening of the Ocean

Abstract

The history of the opening of the South Atlantic in Early Cretaceous time is considered. It is shown that the determining role for continental breakup preparation has been played by tectono-magmatic events within the limits of the distal margins that developed above the plume head. The formation of the Rio Grande Rise–Walvis Ridge volcanic system along the trace of the hot spot is considered. The magmatism in the South Atlantic margins, its sources, and changes in composition during the evolution are described. On the basis of petrogeochemical data, the peculiarities of rocks with a continental signature are shown. Based on Pb–Sr–Nd isotopic studies, it is found that the manifestations of magmatism in the proximal margins had features of enriched components related to the EM I and EM II sources, sometimes with certain participation of the HIMU source. Within the limits of the Walvis Ridge, as magmatism expanded to the newly formed oceanic crust, the participation of depleted asthenospheric mantle became larger in the composition of magmas. The role played by the Tristan plume in magma generation is discussed: it is the most considered as the heat source that determined the melting of the ancient enriched lithosphere. The specifics of the tectono-magmatic evolution of the South Atlantic is pointed out: the origination during spreading of a number of hot spots above the periphery of the African superplume. The diachronous character of the opening of the ocean is considered in the context of northward progradation of the breakup line and its connection with the northern branch of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mid-Cretaceous.

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Correspondence to E. N. Melankholina.

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Original Russian Text © E.N. Melankholina, N.M. Sushchevskaya, 2018, published in Geotektonika, 2018, No. 2, pp. 20–41.

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Melankholina, E.N., Sushchevskaya, N.M. Tectono-Magmatic Evolution of the South Atlantic Continental Margins with Respect to Opening of the Ocean. Geotecton. 52, 173–193 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016852118020061

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Keywords

  • rifting
  • breakup
  • opening of the ocean
  • proximal and distal margins
  • hot spots
  • magmatism
  • isotopic composition