Long-term variations in sunspot characteristics
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Relative variations in the number of sunspots and sunspot groups in activity cycles have been analyzed based on data from the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station and international indices. The following regularities have been established: (1) The relative fraction of small sunspots decreases linearly and that of large sunspots increase with increasing activity cycle amplitude. (2) The variation in the average number of sunspots in one group has a trend, and this number decreased from ∼12 in cycle 19 to ∼7.5 in cycle 24. (3) The ratio of the sunspot index (Ri) to the sunspot group number index (G gr) varies with a period of about 100 years. (4) An analysis of the sunspot group number index (G gr) from 1610 indicates that the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule reverses at the minimums of secular activity cycles. (5) Ratio of the total area to area of Ssp/Sum nuclei has long-term variation with a period approximately 8 cycles. Minimum ratio falls on 16–17 cycles of activity. (6) It has been indicated that the magnetic field intensity and sunspot area in the current cycle are related to the amplitude of the next activity cycle.
KeywordsActivity Cycle Sunspot Area Wolf Number Large Sunspot Small Sunspot
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