Reconstruction of sunspot characteristics for 1853–1879
The Carrington (1853–1861) and Spörer (1861–1879) catalogs of sunspot drawings have been digitized. In the Carrington catalog, 9831 sunspots and 4946 umbrages were detected on daily drawings and 3762 sunspots and 1730 umbrages on synoptic maps. This allowed us to reconstruct the characteristics of 3069 sunspot groups for the period from November 9, 1853, to April 1, 1861. In the Spörer catalogs, 12402 sun-spots and about 5000 umbrages were detected for 1861–1879.
Sunspots and umbrages were detected semiautomatically, a heliographic grid was plotted, and sunspot groups were formed when the images were processed.
The digitized data made it possible to determine the coordinates, areas, relative position, and other geometric parameters of individual sunspots, umbrages, and sunspot groups. These data make it possible to study in detail the fine structure at the end of cycle 9 and in cycles 10 and 11. An electron database of the detected structures has been created.
KeywordsSunspot Number Sunspot Group Sunspot Area Time Diagram Sunspot Index
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Antalova, A., The Ratio Penumbral and Umbral Areas of Sun-Spots in the 11-Year Solar Activity Cycle, BAICz, 1971, vol. 22, pp. 352–370.Google Scholar
- Arlt, R. and Abdolvand, A., First solar butterfly diagram from Schwabe’s observations in 1825–1867, Proc. IAU Symposium Physics of Sun and Star Spots, Choudhary, D.P., and Strassmeier, K.G., Eds., 2010, no. 273, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
- Carrington, R.C., Observations of the Spots on the Sun from 1853 to 1861, Made at Redhill, London: Williams and Norgate, 1863.Google Scholar
- Kopecky, M., Ruzickova-Topolova, B., and Kuklin, G.V., Of the Ralative Inhomohenity of Long-Term Series of Sunspot Indices, Astron. Inst. Czech., Bull., 1980, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 267–283.Google Scholar
- Spoerer, G., Beobashtungen der Sonnenflecken, 1862.Google Scholar
- Spörer, G., Beobashtungen der Sonnenflecken von oktober, p. 1871.Google Scholar
- Spörer, G., Beobashtungen der Sonnenflecken von januar, 1874.Google Scholar
- Spörer, G., Beobashtungen der Sonnenflecken zu Anclam. Leipzig, 1874.Google Scholar
- Svalgaard L. How Well Do We Know the Sunspot Number? Comparative Magnetic Minima: Characterizing Quiet Times in the Sun and Stars, Proc. IAU Symposium, Mandrini, C.H. and Webb, D., Eds., 2012 no. 286 (in press).Google Scholar