Reconstruction of sunspot characteristics for 1853–1879
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The Carrington (1853–1861) and Spörer (1861–1879) catalogs of sunspot drawings have been digitized. In the Carrington catalog, 9831 sunspots and 4946 umbrages were detected on daily drawings and 3762 sunspots and 1730 umbrages on synoptic maps. This allowed us to reconstruct the characteristics of 3069 sunspot groups for the period from November 9, 1853, to April 1, 1861. In the Spörer catalogs, 12402 sun-spots and about 5000 umbrages were detected for 1861–1879.
Sunspots and umbrages were detected semiautomatically, a heliographic grid was plotted, and sunspot groups were formed when the images were processed.
The digitized data made it possible to determine the coordinates, areas, relative position, and other geometric parameters of individual sunspots, umbrages, and sunspot groups. These data make it possible to study in detail the fine structure at the end of cycle 9 and in cycles 10 and 11. An electron database of the detected structures has been created.
KeywordsSunspot Number Sunspot Group Sunspot Area Time Diagram Sunspot Index
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