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Physicogeochemical Evolution of Melts of Superplumes Uplift from the Lower Mantle to the Transition Zone: Experiment at 26 and 20 GPa

Abstract—

A radical transformation of the liquidus structure of the MgO–FeO–CaO–SiO2 system of thermochemical superplumes formed in the Mg–Fe postperovskite-bearing layer D” at the boundary with the Earth’s core during its ascent in the host material of the Mg–Fe bridgmanite-bearing lower mantle to the Mg–Fe ringwoodite-bearing transition zone crossing the 670-km seismic boundary was studied experimentally at 26 and 20 GPa and theoretically. The peritectic reactions of both lower mantle Mg–Fe-bridgmanite with the formation of wüstite and stishovite, and the reactions of Mg–Fe ringwoodite and Mg–Fe akimotoite coupled under the conditions of the transition zone and resulting in the formation of wüstite and stishovite, control the fractional ultramafic–mafic evolution of melts of superplumes in thermobarogradient fields at the corresponding depths of the mantle. The article also discusses the evolutionary physicogeochemical transformations of magmatic systems of superplumes at the depths of the upper mantle and the Earth’s crust with their transformation into “hot fields” with chambers of olivine–basaltic melts transported by “small plumes” into the lithosphere. It is shown that the physicochemical mechanisms and regularities of the ultramafic–mafic evolution of the superplume matter, as well as the Earth’s mantle, are provided by the liquidus structure of the MgO–FeO–CaO–Na2O–Al2O3–SiO2 system. In this case, the role of the boundary system MgO–FeO–CaO–SiO2 is important for the conditions of the lower mantle and transition zone,. The fractional crystallization mode promotes an increase in the concentrations of Na2O and Al2O3 in residual melts and their physicochemical significance at shallower depths. The same systems and mechanisms are applicable to the evolution of the global magma ocean and local mantle chambers of magmatism and diamond formation.

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Funding

This study was supported by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (program no. I.08.P “Physics of Condensed Matter and Materials of a New Generation” and was performed as a part of thematic projects of the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences (nos. AAAA-A13-118020590140-7 and AAAA-A18-118021990093-9).

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Translated by A. Bobrov

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Litvin, Y.A., Spivak, A.V. & Kuzyura, A.V. Physicogeochemical Evolution of Melts of Superplumes Uplift from the Lower Mantle to the Transition Zone: Experiment at 26 and 20 GPa. Geochem. Int. 59, 661–682 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016702921070041

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Keywords:

  • mantle
  • lithosphere
  • magmatism
  • thermochemical superplumes
  • MgO–FeO–CaO–SiO2 system
  • physicochemical experiment
  • liquidus structure
  • peritectic reactions of bridgmanite
  • ringwoodite
  • and akimotoite
  • fractional ultramafic–mafic evolution
  • hot spots
  • small plumes
  • oceanic basalt islands and plateaus