The Ushkatyn-III deposit is located in Central Kazakhstan, 300 km west of Karaganda. It is ascribed to the weakly metamorphosed Atasu-type hydrothermal–sedimentary ore deposits. The Upper Devonian (D3fm2) carbonate sequence of this deposit comprises stratiform barite–lead, iron, and manganese orebodies. The study was focused on the iron– and manganese–bearing deposits. New data were obtained on the content of major (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P), trace (Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hf, W, Tl, Pb, Th, and U), and rare-earth elements (REE) in all rocks of the ore-bearing unit. It is shown that all rocks, including host limestones, are enriched in Mn, As, Zn, Ba, and Pb, while normalization to aluminum revealed excessive Li, Be, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sb, W, and Tl contents relative to the terrigenous part of sediment. REE variations point to a change of redox settings for accumulation of initial metalliferous sediments. Geological and geochemical data show that the genesis of the barite–lead, iron and manganese ores is related to the evolution of a single hydrothermal system. The ores were formed near or on the seafloor surface: the barite–lead ores are confined to venting sites on reefal buildups, while iron and manganese ores are formed from matter dispersed in the water column at some distance from hydrothermal vents.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Atlas of Mineral Deposit Models of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Ed. by S. Zh. Daukeev, B. S. Uzhkenov, Kh. A. Bespaev, L. A. Miroshnichenko, A. K. Mazurov, and M. A. Sayduakasov (Center for geoinformation of the MF RK, Almaty, 2004]. M. Bau and P. Dulski, “Distribution of yttrium and rare-earth elements in the Penge and Kuruman iron–formations, Transvaal supergroup, South Africa,” Precambrian Res. 79, 37–55 (1996).
M. Bau, K. Scmidt, A. Koschinsky, J. Hein, T. Kuhn, and A. Usui, “Discriminating between different genetic types of marine ferro-manganese crusts and nodules on rare earth elements and yttrium,” Chem. Geol. 381, 1–9 (2014).
Biology of Hydrothermal Systems, Ed. by A. V. Gebruk (Inst. Okeanol. RAN, Moscow, 2002) [in Russian].
J. Brugger and R. Giere “Origin and distribution of some trace elements in metamorhhosed Fe–Mn deposits, Val Ferrera, Eastern Swiss Alps,” Can. Mineral. 38, 1075–1101 (2000).
H.-J. Brumsack, “The trace metal content of recent organic carbon–rich sediments: implications for Creataceous black shale formation,” Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 344–361 (2006).
A. I. Brusnitsyn, “Associations of Mn–Bearing minerals as indicators of oxygen fugacity during the metamorphism of metalliferous deposits,” Geochem. Int. 45 (4), 345–363 (2007).
A. I. Brusnitsyn, “Geochemistry and genetic model of the ore–bearing sediments of the Parnok ferromanganese deposit, Polar Urals,” Geochem. Int. 51(8), 623–645 (2013).
A. I. Brusnitsyn, Parnok Manganese Deposit, Polar Urals: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Ore Genesis (St. Peterb. Gos. Univ., St. Petersburg, 2015) [in Russian].
A. I. Brusnitsyn and S. V. Strekopytov, “Mineralogy and geochemistry of ore–bearing deposits of the Durnovskoe deposit,” Metallogeny of Ancient and Modern Oceans–2010. Ore Potential of Rift and Island-Arc Structures, (IMin URO RAN, Miass, 2010), pp. 90–97 [in Russian].
A. I. Brusnitsyn, E. N. Perova, O. S. Vereshchagin, S. N. Britvin, N. V. Platonova, and V. V. Shilovskikh, “Genetic mineralogy of manganese ores of the Ushkatyn-III deposit, Central Kazakhstan,” Metallogeny of Ancient and Modern Oceans-2018. Volcanism and Ore Formation, Ed. by V. V. Maslennikov and I. Yu. Melekestseva, (IMin URO RAN, Miass, 2018), pp. 67–70 [in Russian].
A. I. Brusnitsyn, V. N. Kuleshov, S. A. Sadykov, E. N. Perova and O. S. Vereshchagin, “Isotopic composition (δ13C and δ18O) and genesis of Mn-bearing sediments in the Ushkatyn-III deposit, Central Kazakhstan,” Lithol. Miner. Resour. 55 (6), 445–467 (2020).
G. Yu. Butuzova, Hydrothermal–Sedimentary Ore Formation in the Red Sea Rift Zone (Geos, Moscow, 1998) [in Russian].
E. I. Buzmakov, and V. I. Shibrik, “Stratigraphy and lithology of the Famennian and Tournesian deposits of the Atasu ore district,” Sov. Geologiya, No. 2, 61–79 (1976).
E. I. Buzmakov, V. I. Shchibrik, A. A. Rozhnov, V. Ya. Sereda, and N. M. Radchenko, “Stratiform ferromanganese and base–metal deposits of the Ushkatyn ore field, Central Kazakhstan,” Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., No. 1, 32–46 (1975).
S. E. Calvert and T. F. Pedersen “Sedimentary geochemistry of manganese: implications for the environment of formation of manganiferous black shale,” Econ. Geol. 91, 36–47 (1996).
B. C. Chisonga, J. Gutzmer, N. J. Beukes, and J. M. Huizenga, “Nature and origin of the protolith succession to the paleoproterozoic Serra do Navio manganes deposit, Amapa province, Brazil,” Ore Geol. Rev. 47, 59–76 (2012).
A. V. Dubinin, Rare-Earth Element Geochemistry in Ocean (Nauka, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].
Ecosystems of the Atlantic Hydrothermal Vents, Ed. by M. E. Vinogradov and A. L. Vereshchalka (Nauka, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].
E. R. Force and W. F. Cannon, “Depositional model for shallow–marine manganese deposits around black shale basins,” Econ. Geol. 83, 93–117 (1988).
L. Frakes and B. Bolton, “Effects of oceanic chemistry, sea level, and climate on the formation of primary sedimentary manganese ore deposits,” Econ. Geol. 87, 1207–1217 (1992).
C. Frondel and J. Baum, “Structure and mineralogy of the Franklin zinc–iron–manganese deposit, New Jersey,” Econ. Geol. 69, 157–180 (1974).
S. V. Galkin, Hydrothermal Communities of the World Ocean (GEOS, Moscow, 2002) [in Russian].
C. R. German, B. P. Holliday, and H. Elderfield, “Redox cycling of rare earth elements in suboxin zone of the Black Sea,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3553–3558 (1991).
G. P. Glasby, C. T. Paravassiliou, J. Mitsis, E. Valsami–Jones, A. Liakopoulos, and R. M. Renner, “The Vani manganese deposit, Milos Island. Greece: fossil stratabound Mn–Ba–Pb–Zn–As–Sb–W–rich hydrothermal deposit, in The South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc, Ed. by M. Fytikas, and G. Vougioukalakis, (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005), pp. 255–291.
E. G. Gurvich, Metalliferous of the World Ocean (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 1998) [in Russian].
J. Gutzmer and N. J. Beukes, “The manganese formatiom of the Neoproterozoic Penganga Group, India – revision of an enigma,” Econ.Geol. 93, 1091–1102 (1998).
D. Holtstam and J. Mansfeld “Origin of a carbonate–hosted Fe–Mn–(Ba–As–Pb–Sb–W) deposit of Langban–type in central Sweden,” Miner. Deposita 36, 641–657 (2001).
J. S. Huebner, Stability Relation of Minerals in the System Mn–Si–C–O, Ph. D. Thesis (The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1967).
V. V. Kalinin, “Metamorphism in manganese and ferromanganese ores of the deposits of the Ushkatyn group, Central Kazakhstan,” Geology and Geochemistry of Manganese, Ed. by I. M. Varentsov (Nauka, Moscow, 1982), pp. 122–127 [in Russian].
V. V. Kalinin, “Complex ferromanganese and zinc–lead–barite ores of the deposits of the Ushkatyn group, Central Kazakhstan,” Volcanogenic–Sedimentary and Hydrothermal Manganese Deposits, Ed. by I. V. Vitovskaya (Nauka, Moscow, 1985), pp. 5–64 [in Russian].
V. V. Kalinin, A. A. Rozhnov, E. I. Buzmakov, V. Ya. Sereda, and V. I. Shchibrik, “Composition of ores and genetic features of the deposits of the Ushkatyn ore field,” Manganese Ore Formation at the USSR Territory, Ed. by D. G. Sapozhnikov (Nauka, Moscow, 1984), pp. 131–137 [in Russian].
Y. Kato, K. Fujinaga, T. Nozaki, H. Osawa, K. Nakamura, and R. Ono, “Rare earth, major and trace elements in the Kunimiyama ferromanganese deposit in the Northen Chichibu Belt, Central Shikoku, Japan,” Res. Geol. 55, 291–299 (2005).
M. M. Kayupova, Mineralogy of Iron and Manganese Ores of Western Atasu, Central Kazakhstan (Alma–Ata, Nauka, 1974) [in Russian].
V. N. Kholodov, Geochemistry of Sedimentary Process (Transactions of the Geological Institute, v. 574. Ed. Yu.G. Leonov. GEOS, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].
Ya. M. Kislyakov and V. N. Shchetochkin, Hydrogenic Ore Formation (Geoinformmark, Moscow, 2000) [in Russian].
V. V. Korobkin and M. M. Buslov, “Geology and geodynamics of the western Central Asian Fold Belt (Kazakhstan Palezoides),” Russ. Geol. Geophys., No. 12, 1600–1618 (2011).
Långban, the Mines, their Minerals, History and Explorers, Ed. by D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, (Raster Forlag, Stockholm, 1999).
Y.-H. Li and J. E. Schoonmaker, “Chemical composition and mineralogy of marine sediments,” Treatise on Geochemistry. Sediments, Diagenesis, and Sedimentary Rocks (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003), vol. 7, pp. 1–35.
A. Liakopoulos, G. P. Glasby, C. T. Papavassiliou, and J. Boulegue, “Nature and origin of the Vani manganese deposits, Milos, Greece: an overview,” Ore Geol. Rev. 18, 181–209 (2001).
J. B. Maynard, “The chemistry of manganese ores through time: a signal of increasing diversity of earth–sufface environment,” Econ. Geol. 105, 535–552 (2010).
J. B. Maynard, “Manganiferous sediments, rocks and ores,” Treatise on Geochemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam. 2014), Vol. 9, 327–349.
N. M. Mitryaeva, Mineralogy of the Barite–Zinc–Lead Ores of the Deposits of the Atasu District, (Nauka, Alma–Ata, 1979) [in Russian].
J. W. Moffet, “Microbially mediated cerium oxidation in sea water,” Nature 345 (6274), 421–423 (1990).
F. M. M. Morel, A. J. Milligan, and M. A. Saito, “Marine bioinorganic chemistry: the role of trace metals in the oceanic cycles of major nutrients,” Treatise on Geochemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2014), vol. 8, pp. 123–150.
M. Munteanu, S. Marincea, H. U. Kasper, K. Zak, V. Alexe, V.Trandafir, G. Saptefrati, and A. Mihalache, “Black chert–hosted manganese deposits from the Bistritei Mountains, Eastern Carpathians (Romania): petrography, genesis and metamorphic evolution,” Ore Geol. Rev. 24, 45–65 (2004).
K. Nicholson, “Contrasting mineralogical–geochemical signatures of manganese oxides: guides to metallogenesis,” Econ. Geol. 87, 1253–1264 (1992).
F. O. Ossa, A. Hofmann, M. Wille, J. E. Spangenberg, A. Bekker, S. W. Poulton, B. Eickmann, and R. Schoenberg, “Aerobic iron and manganese cycling in a redox–stratified Mesoarchean epicontinental sea,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 500, 28–40 (2018).
K. Papavassiliou, P. Voudouris, C. Kanellopoulos, G. Glasby, D. Alfieris, and I. Mitsis, “New geochemical and mineralogical contraints on the genesis of the Vani hydrothermal manganese deposits at NW Milos island, Greece: cpmparison with the Aspro Gialoudi deposits and implications for the formation on the Molos manganese mineralization,” Ore Geol. Rev. 80, 594–611 (2017).
A. I. Perelman, Geochemistry (Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 1989) [in Russian].
N. Planavsky, A. Bekker, O. J. Rouxel, B. Kamber, A. Hofmann, A. Knudsen, and T. W. Lyons, “Rare earth elements and yttrium compositions of archean and paleoproterozoic Fe formations revisited: new perspectives on the significance and mechanusms of deposition,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 6387–6405 (2010).
G. Rantitsch, F. Melcher, Th. Meisel, and Th. Rainer, “Rare earth, major and trace elements in Juarassic manganese shales of the Northern Calcareous Alps: hydrothermal versus hudrogenous origin of stratiform manganese deposits,” Mineral. Petrol. 77, 109–127 (2003).
Reference Book on Stratiform Deposits, Ed. by L. F. Narkelyun and A. I. Trubachev (Nedra, Moscow, 1990) [in Russian]. 91 p.
L. Robb, Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes (Blackwell Publishing, 2005).
S. Roy, Manganese Deposits (Academic Press, London, 1981).
A. A. Rozhnov, “Geological–genetic features of manganese mineralization of the western Dzhailma trough and the place of manganese mineralization in the iron and base metal occurrences of the district,” Manganese Deposits of the USSR, Ed. by D. G. Sapozhnikov, (Nauka, Moscow, 1967), pp. 311–324 [in Russian].
A. A. Rozhnov, Comparative characteristics of the manganese deposits of the Atasu and Nikopol–Chiatur types,” Manganese Geology and Geochemistry, Ed. by I. M. Varentsov (Nauka, Moscow, 1982), pp. 116–121 [in Russian].
A. A. Rozhnov, E. I. Buzmakov, N. K. Manukhin, and V. I. Shchibrik, “Zoning of iron and manganese ores of the Atasu deposits, Central Kazakhstan,” Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., No. 3, 23–32 (1976).
G. N. Shcherba, “Atasu-type deposits,” Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., No. 5, 106–114 (1967).
G. N. Shcherba, “Some features of study of the Atasu-type deposit,” Izv. Akad. Nauk KazSSR, Ser. Geol., No. 5, 15–33 (1964).
E. R. Sholkovitz, W. M. Landing, and B. L. Lewis, “Ocean particle chemistry: the fractionation of rare earth elements betweem suspended particles and seawater,” Geochim. Cosmochim. 58, 1567–1579 (1994).
N. S. Skripchenko, Prediction of Non–Ferrous Metal Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks (Nedra, Moscow, 1989) [in Russian].
N. Tribovillaed, T. J. Algeo, T. Lyons, and A. Riboulleau, “Trace metals as paleoredox and paleoproductivity proxies: an update,” Chem. Geol. 232, 12–32 (2006).
I. M. Varentsov, A. B. Veimarn, A. A. Rozhnov, V. I. Shibrik, and A. L. Soklova, “Geochemical model of the formation of manganese ores of the Famennian rift basin of Kazakhstan: major components, rare–earth and trace elements,” Lithol. Miner. Resour., No. 3, 56–79. (1993).
A. B. Veimarn, “Famennian ferromanganese deposits of Central Kazakhstan,” Manganese Geology and Geochemistry, Ed. By I. M. Varentsov, (Nauka, Moscow, 1982), pp. 122–127(1982) [in Russian].
A. B. Veimarn and E. E. Milanovsky, “Famennian rifting: evidence from Kazakhstan and some other regions of Eurasia. Paper 1,” Byul. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., No. 4, 34–47 (1990).
J. J. Wilkinson, “Sediment-hosted zinc–lead mineralization: processes and perspectives, “ Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2014), Vol. 13, pp. 219–250.
C. Wu, Z. Zhang, J. Xiao, Y. Fu, S. Shao, C. Zheng, J. Yao, and C. Xiao, “Nanhuan manganese deposits within restricted basins of the southeastern Yangtze platform, China: constraints from geological and geochemical evidence,” Ore Geol. Rev. 75, 76–99 (2016).
J. Xiao, J. He, H. Yang, and C. Wu, “Comparison between Datangpo-type manganese ores and modern marine ferromanganese oxyhydroxide precpcitates based on rare earth elements,” Ore Geol. Rev. 89, 290–308 (2017).
Ya. E. Yudovich, and M. P. Ketris, Geochemical Indicators of Lithogenesis: Lithological Geochemistry (Geoprint, Syktyvkar, 2011) [in Russian].
Ya. E. Yudovich, and M. P. Ketris, Manganese Geochemistry (Geoprint, Syktyvkar, 2014) [in Russian].
Zhairem Mining and Processing Plant. Annual Report for 2015 (AO ZHGOK, 2015) [in Russian].
We are grateful to A.Yu. Burkovskii, the Chairman of the JSC Zhairem Mining and Processing Plant (Zhairem Settlement, Kazakhstan) and geologists of this company (V.A. Volkov, O.A. Muratov, A.N. Abdel’manova, Zh.Zh. Akimeev, K.A. Akshalova, A.S. Burkhanov, R.B. Ivakova, and G.K. Turlynova) for help in field studies.
The studies were carried out using analytical facilities of the Resource Centers of the “X-Ray Diffraction Methods of Study”, “Microscopy and Microanalysis,” and “Geomodel” of the St. Petersburg State University.
Translated by M. Bogina
About this article
Cite this article
Brusnitsyn, A.I., Perova, E.N., Vereshchagin, O.S. et al. Geochemical Features and Accumulation Conditions of Mn-Bearing Sediments in the Complex (Fe–Mn and BaSO4–Pb) Ushkatyn-III Deposit, Central Kazakhstan. Geochem. Int. 59, 858–888 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016702921070028
- manganese deposits
- metalliferous sediments
- geochemical indicators of ore genesis