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Formation Processes and Parameters of the Landscape–Geochemical Barrier of the Eutrophic Swamp

Abstract

Eutrophic lowland swamp was investigated in the southern taiga within the Ostashkovskaya terminal moraine ridges of the Valdai Upland in the Novgorod Region. Obtained characteristics of the landscape–geochemical barrier of the swamp must be taken into account both in the search for minerals and in planning of rational nature management. The chemical composition of peats and drainage water is determined by a complex spatiotemporal interaction of surface and groundwater runoffs with the peat formation, decomposition of mineral impurities, and sorption–desorption features of peat. Si, Al, Ti, Na, K are mainly supplied with surface runoff and accumulated under the influence of a mechanical barrier and subsequent leaching of mineral impurities and sorption by peat. This results in their exponential decrease with distance from the moraine range. The distribution of Ca, Mg, S, Fe, and Mn in the lowland peat is mainly controlled by migration with groundwater. Under the influence of filtration and sorption, their contents in peat clearly mark the groundwater discharge zone. The contrast of the studied geochemical barrier calculated as the ratio of the element contents in water before and after the barrier is determined as KAl ~ 12–10, KСa ~ 8–4, KFe ~ 6–4, KMn ~ 4–3, KS ~ 2–1.5 for concentrating elements; KCl, K, Na ~ 1.5–0.8 for weakly concentrating elements; and KSi ~ 1–0.3 for non-concentrating elements. In the humid climate, the complex geochemical barrier of the eutrophic swamp during the Holocene effectively absorbed elements as dissolved and suspended species. Moreover, the geochemical barrier is undersaturated in all elements, which indicates the high water treatment abilities of lowland eutrophic peatland.

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Correspondence to V. V. Sysuev.

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Translated by M. Bogina

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Sysuev, V.V. Formation Processes and Parameters of the Landscape–Geochemical Barrier of the Eutrophic Swamp. Geochem. Int. 59, 699–710 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016702921060100

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Keywords:

  • element migration
  • geochemical barriers
  • lowland eutrophic swamp