P. Armienti and P. Longo, “Three-dimensional representation of geochemical data from a multidimensional compositional space,” Int. J. Geosci. 2, 231–239 (2011).
S. Callegaro, A. Marzoli, H. Bertrand, M. Chiaradia, L. Reisberg, C. Meyzen, G. Bellieni, R. E. Weems, and R. Merle, “Upper and lower crust recycling in the source of CAMP basaltic dykes from southeastern North America,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 376, 186–199 (2013).
V. E. Courtillot and P. R. Renne, “On the ages of flood basalt events,” Comptes Rendus Geosci. 335, 113–140 (2003).
K. G. Cox, “The role of mantle plumes in the development of continental drainage patterns,” Nature 342, 873–877 (1989).
M. L. Curtis, T. R. Riley, W. H. Owens, Ph. T. Leat, and R. A. Duncan “The form, distribution and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of Jurassic dykes,” in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Implications for Dyke Swarm Emplacement, Ed. by H. U. Sverdrupfjella, J. Struct. Geol. 30, 1429–1447 (2008).
I. W. D. Dalziel, L. A. Lawver, and J. B. Murphy, “Plumes, orogenesis, and supercontinental fragmentation,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 178, 1–11 (2000).
J. M. Day, D. G. Pearson, C. G. Macpherson, D. Lowry, and J. C. Carracedo, “Pyroxenite-rich mantle formed by recycled oceanic lithosphere: oxygen–osmium isotope evidence from Canary Island lavas,” Geology 37 (6), 555–558 (2009).
R. A. Duncan, P. R. Hooper, J. Rehacek, J. S. Marsh, and A. R. Duncan, “The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana,” J. Geophys. Res. B102, 18127–18138 (1997).
L. J. Elkins, B. Bourdon, and S. Lambart, “Testing pyroxenite versus peridotite sources for marine basalts using U-series isotopes,” Lithos 332–333, 226–244 (2019).
R. M. Ellam and K. G. Cox, “A Proterozoic lithospheric source for Karoo magmatism: evidence from the Nuanetsi picrites,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 92 (2), 207–218 (1989).
D. H. Elliot and T. H. Fleming, “Weddell triple junction: The principal focus of Ferrar and Karoo magmatism during initial breakup of Gondwana,” Geology 28 (6), 539–542 (2000).
J. Encarnación, T. H. Fleming, D. H. Elliot, and H. V. Eales, “Synchronous emplacement of Ferrar and Karoo dolerites and the early breakup of Gondwana,” Geology 24, 535–538 (1996).
F. Ferraccioli, P. C. Jones, M. L. Curtis, P. T. Leat, and T. R. Riley, “Tectonic and magmatic patterns in the Jutulstraumen rift (?) region, East Antarctica, as imaged by high-resolution aeromagnetic data,” Earth Planet. Space. 57, 767–780 (2005).
H. Furnes, E. Neumann, and B. Sundvoll, “Petrology and geochemistry of Jurassic basalt dykes from Vestfjella, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica,” Lithos 15, 295–304 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(82)90020-2
H. Furnes, E. Vad, H. Austrheim, J. G. Mitchell, and L. B. Garmann, “Geochemistry of basalt lavas from Vestfjella and adjacent areas, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica,” Lithos 20, 337–356 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(87)90015-6
W. Gorczyk, D. R. Mole, and S. J. Barnes, “Plume–lithosphere interaction at craton margins throughout Earth history,” Tectonophysics 746, 678–694 (2018).
G. E. Grikurov and G. Leychenkov, Tectonic Map of Antarctica (Scale 1:10 M). Commission for Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (Paris, 2012).
P. B. Groenewald, A. B. Moyes, G. H. Grantham, and J. R. Krynauw, “East Antarctic crustal evolution: geological constraints and modelling in western Dronning Maud Land,” Precambrian Res. 75, 231–250 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(95)80008-6
E. G. Grosch, A. Bisnath, H. E. Frimmel, and W. S. Board, “Geochemistry and tectonic setting of mafic rocks in western Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Proterozoic Maud Belt,” J. Geol. Soc., London 164, 465–475 (2007).
Ch. Harris, J. S. Marsh, A. R. Duncan, and A. J. Erlank, “The petrogenesis of the Kirwan basalts of Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica,” J. Petrol. 31, 341–369 (1990).
W. W. Hastie, M. K. Watkeys, and C. Aubourg, “Magma flow in dyke swarms of the Karoo LIP: implications for the mantle plume hypothesis,” Gondwana Res. 25, 736–755 (2014).
C. J. Hawkesworth, J. S. Marsh, A. R. Duncan, A. J. Erlank, and M. J. Norry, “The role of continental lithosphere in the generation of the Karoo volcanic rocks: evidence from combined Nd– and Sr–isotope studies in petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks of the Karoo Province,” Geol. Soc. S. Africa Spec. Publ. 13, 341–354 (1984).
J. S. Heinonen and A. V. Luttinen, “Jurassic dikes of Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica: geochemical tracing of ferropicrite sources,” Lithos 105, 347–364 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2008.05.010
J. S. Heinonen and A. V. Luttinen, “Mineral chemical evidence for extremely magnesian subalkaline melts from the Antarctic extension of the Karoo large igneous province,” Mineral. Petrol. 99, 201–217 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00710-010-0115-9
J. S. Heinonen, R. W. Carlson, and A. V. Luttinen, “Isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb, and Os) composition of highly magnesian dikes of Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica: a key to the origins of the Jurassic Karoo large igneous province?,” Chem. Geol. 277, 227–244 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.08.004
J. S. Heinonen, A. V. Luttinen, T. R. Riley, and R. M. Michallik, “Mixed pyroxenite–peridotite sources for mafic and ultramafic dikes from the Antarctic segment of the Karoo continental flood basalt province,” Lithos 177, 366–380 (2013).
J. S. Heinonen, R. W. Carlson, T. R. Riley, A. V. Luttinen, and M. F. Horan, “Subduction-modified oceanic crust mixed with a depleted mantle reservoir in the sources of the Karoo continental flood basalt province,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 394, 229–241 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.012
J. S. Heinonen, R. W. Carlson, A. V. Luttinen, and W. A. Bohrson, “Enriched continental flood basalts from depleted mantle melts: modeling lithospheric contamination of Karoo lavas from Antarctica,” Contrib. Mineral Petrol. 171 (1), 171–179 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-015-1214-8
J. S. Heinonen, A. V. Luttinen, and M. J. Whitehouse, “Enrichment of 18O in the mantle sources of the Antarctic portion of the Karoo large igneous province,” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 173, 21–37 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-018-1447-4
M. M. Hirschmann and E. M. Stolper, “A possible role for garnet pyroxenite in the origin of the “garnet signature” in MORB,” Contrib. Mineral Petrol. 124, 185–208 (1996).
A. W. Hofmann and W. M. White, “Mantle plumes from ancient oceanic crust,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 57, 421–436 (1982).
M. J. Hole, “Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for polybaric fractional crystallization of continental flood basalts and implications for identification of peridotite and pyroxenite source lithologies,” Earth–Sci. Rev. 176, 51–67 (2018).
M. Honda, I. McDougall, and D. Patterson, “Solar noble gases in the Earth: The systematics of helium–neon isotopes in mantle derived samples,” Lithos 30, 257–265 (1993).
G. H. Howarth and Ch. Harris, “Discriminating between pyroxenite and peridotite sources for continental flood basalts (CFB) in southern Africa using olivine chemistry,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 475, 143–151 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.07.043
J. Jacobs, R. J. Thomas, and K. Weber, “Accretion and indentation tectonics at the southern edge of the Kaapvaal Craton during the Kibaran (Grenville) Orogeny,” Geology 21 (3), 203–206 (1993).
J. Jacobs, E. Mikhalsky, F. Henjes–Kunst, A. Lufer, R. J. Thomas, M. A. Elburg, C.–C. Wang, S. Estrada, and G. Skublov, “Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of easternmost Kalahari: constraints from U–Pb–Hf–O zircon, Sm-Nd isotope and geochemical data from the Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica,” Precambrian Res. 342, 105553 (2020).
F. Jourdan, G. Feraud, H. Bertrand, A. B. Kampunzu, G. Tshoso, B. Le Gall, J. J. Tiercelin, and P. Capiez, “The Karoo triple junction questioned: Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar Jurassic and Proterozoic ages and geochemistry of the Okavango dike swarm (Botswana),” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 222, 989–1006 (2004).
F. Jourdan, H. Bertrand, U. Scharer, J. Blichert-Toft, G. Feraud, and A. B. Kampuzu, “Major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotope compositions of the Karoo Large Igneous Province, Botswana–Zimbabwe: lithosphere vs mantle plume contribution,” J. Petrol. 48 (6), 1043–1077 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egm010
F. Jourdan, G. Feraud, H. Bertrand, and M. K. Watkeys, “From flood basalts to the inception of oceanization: example from the 40Ar/39Ar high–resolution picture of the Karoo large igneous province,” Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst. 8 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001392
V. S. Kamenetsky, R. Maas, M. B. Kamenetsky, G. M. Yaxley, K. Ehrig, G. F. Zellmer, I. N. Bindeman, A. V. Sobolev, D. V. Kuzmin, A. V. Ivanov, J. Woodhead, and J. Schilling, “Multiple mantle sources of continental magmatism: insights from “high–Ti” picrites of Karoo and other large igneous provinces,” Chem. Geol. 455, 22–31 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.08.034
J. Korenaga, “Mantle mixing and continental breakup magmatism,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 218, 463–473 (2004).
S. Lambart, D. Laporte, A. Provost, and P. Schiano, “Fate of pyroxenite-derived melts in the peridotitic mantle: thermodynamic and experimental constraints,” J. Petrol. 53, 451–476 (2012).
S. Lambart, D. Laporte, and P. Schiano, “Markers of the pyroxenite contribution in the major–element compositions of oceanic basalts: Review of the experimental constraints,” Lithos 160–161, 14–36 (2013).
S. Lambart, M. B. Baker, and E. M. Stopler, “The role of pyroxenite in basalt genesis: melt–PX, a melting parameterization for mantle pyroxenites between 0.9 and 5 GPa,” J. Geophys. Res. (2016). https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JB012762
L. A. Lawver, L. M. Gahagan, and M. F. Coffin, “The development of paleoseaways around Antarctica,” Antarct. Res. Ser. 56, 7–30 (1992). doi: 10 .1029 /AR056p0007.
G. Leitchenkov, H. Miller, and E. Zatzepin, “Structure and Mesozoic evolution of the Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica: history of early Gondwana break-up,” In: Weddell Sea Tectonics and Gondwana Break-up, Ed. by B. Storey, E. King, and R. Livermore, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 108, 175–190 (1996).
G. L. Leitchenkov and V. N. Masolov, “Tectonic and magmatic history of the Weddell Sea region,” In: Breakup Processes – Jurassic to Recent Antarctic Region: Geological Evolution and Processes. Proc. VII
Int. Symp. on Antarctic Earth Science, Ed. by G. L. Leitchenkov and T. Wilson, (1997), pp. 461–466 (1997).
G. L. Leichenkov, Yu. B. Guseva, and V. V. Gandyukhin, “Structrue of the crust and tectonic evolution of the eastern part of the Weddell and Lazarev seas,” Razved. Okhr. Nedr, No. 2, 43–47 (2016).
A. V. Luttinen, “Bilateral geochemical asymmetry in the Karoo large igneous province,” Sci. Rep. 8, 5223–5234 (2018).
A. V. Luttinen and H. Furnes, “Flood basalts of Vestfjella: Jurassic magmatism across an Archaean–Proterozoic lithospheric boundary in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica,” J. Petrol. 41, 1271–1305 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/41.8.1271
A. V. Luttinen and J. U. Siivola, “Geochemical characteristics of Mesozoic lavas and dikes from Vestfjella, Dronning Maud Land: recognition of three distinct chemical types,” The Antarctic Region: Geological Evolution and Processes, Ed. by C. A. Ricci, Terra Antarct. Publ. Sienna 7, (1997) 495–503.
A. V. Luttinen, O. T. Rämö, and H. Huhma, “Neodymium and strontium isotopic and trace element composition of a Mesozoic CFB suite from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica: implications for lithosphere and asthenosphere contributions to Karoo magmatism,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 62, 2701–2714 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(98)00184-7
A. V. Luttinen, X. Zhang, and K. A. Foland, “159 Ma Kjakebeinet lamproites (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica) and their implications for Gondwana breakup processes,” Geol. Mag. 139, 525–539 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1017/S001675680200674X
A. V. Luttinen, P. T. Leat, and H. Furnes, “Björnnutane and Sembberget basalt lavas and the geochemical provinciality of Karoo magmatism in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica,” J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 198, 1–18 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.07.011
A. V. Luttinen, J. S. Heinonen, M. Kurhila, F. Jourdan, I. Mänttäri, S. K. Vuori, and H. Huhma, “Depleted mantle-sourced CFB magmatism in the Jurassic Africa–Antarctica Rift: petrology and 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb chronology of the Vestfjella Dyke Swarm, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica,” J. Petrol. 56, 919–952 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egv022
J. S. Marsh, P. R. Hooper, J. Rehacek, R. A. Duncan, and A. R. Duncan, “Stratigraphy and age of Karoo basalts of Lesotho and Implications for correlations within the Karoo Igneous Province,” In: Large Igneous Provinces: Continental, Oceanic and Planetary Flood Volcanism, Ed. by J. J. Mahoney and M. F. Coffin, Geophys. Monogr. 100, 247–272 (1997).
A. K. Matzen, B. J. Wood, M. B. Baker, E. M. Stolper, “The roles of pyroxenite and peridotite in the mantle sources of oceanic basalts,” Nat. Geosci. 10, 530–535 (2017).
D. McKenzie and R. K. O’Nions, “Mantle reservoirs and oceanic basalts,” Nature 301, 229–231 (1983).
E. N. Melankholina and N. M. Sushchevskaya, “Development of continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and successive breakup of the Pangaea-3 Supercontinent,” Geotectonics 51 (1), 40–52 (2017).
E. N. Melankholina and N. M. Sushchevskaya, Tectonics of the Southern Ocean Passive Margins in the Africa–East Antarctica Region, Geotectonics 53 (4), 468–484 (2019).
N. A. Migdisova, A. V. Sobolev, N. M. Sushchevskaya, E. P. Dubinin, and D. V. Kuz’min, “Mantle heterogeneity at the Bouvet triple junction based on the composition of olivine phenocrysts,” Russ. Geol. Geophys. 58 (11), 1289–1304 (2017).
M. Moreira, C. Gautheron, K. Breddam, J. Curtice, and M. D. Kurz, “Solar neon in the Icelandic mantle: New evidence for an undegassed lower mantle,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 185, 15–23 (2001).
A. B. Moyes, J. R. Krynauw, and J. M. Barton, “The age of the Ritscherflya Supergroup and Borgmassivet Intrusions, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica,” Antarct. Sci. 7, 87–97 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102095000125
C. Natali, L. Beccaluva, G. Bianchini, and F. Siena, “Comparison among Ethiopia–Yemen, Deccan, and Karoo continental flood basalts of central Gondwana: Insights on lithosphere versus asthenosphere contributions in compositionally zoned magmatic provinces,” Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 526, 191–215 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1130/2017.2526(10)
M. Peters, B. Haverkamp, R. Emmermann, H. Kohnen, and K. Weber, “Palaeomagnetism, K–Ar dating and geodynamic setting of igneous rocks in western and central Neuschwabenland, Antarctica,” In: Geological Evolution of Antarctica. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Ed. by M. R. A. Thomson, J. A. Crame, and J. W. Thomson (Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 1991), pp. 549–555.
T. R. Riley, P. T. Leat, M. L. Curtis, I. L. Millar, R. A. Duncan, and A. Fazel, “Early–middle Jurassic dolerite dykes from western Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica): identifying mantle sources in the Karoo large igneous province,” J. Petrol. 46, 1489–1524 (2005).
N. Søager, M. Portnyagin, K. Hoernle, P. M. Holm, F. Hauff, and D. Garbe-Schönberg, “Olivine major and trace element compositions in southern Payenia basalts, Argentina: evidence for pyroxenite–peridotite melt mixing in a back-arc setting,” J. Petrol. 56 (8), 1495–1518 (2015).
A. V. Sobolev, A. W. Hofmann, S. V. Sobolev, and I. K. Nikogosian, “An olivine–free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts,” Nature 434, 590–597 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03411
A. V. Sobolev, A. W. Hofmann, D. V. Kuzmin, G. M. Yaxley, N. T. Arndt, S. Chung, L. V. Danyushevsky, T. Elliott, F. A. Frey, M. O. Garcia, A. A. Gurenko, V. S. Kamenetsky, A. C. Kerr, N. A. Krivolutskaya, V. V. Matvienkov, I. K. Nikogosian, A. Rocholl, I. A. Sigurdsson, N. M. Sushchevskaya, M. Teklay, “The amount of recycled crust in sources of mantle-derived melts,” Science 316, 412–417 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138113
A. V. Sobolev, N. A. Krivolutskaya, and D. V. Kuzmin, “Petrology of the parental melts and mantle sources of Siberian trap magmatism,” Petrology 17 (3), 253–286 (2009).
G. Spaeth and P. Schüll, “A survey of Mesozoic dolerite dikes from Western Neuschwabenland, Antarctica, and their geotectonic significance,” Polarforschung 57 (l/2), 93–113 (1987).
N. A. Stroncik and C. W. Devey, “Recycled gabbro signature in hotspot magmas unveiled by plume–ridge interactions,” Nature Geosci. 4, 39–397 (2011).
S.-S. Sun and W. F. McDonough, “Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes, in magmatism in the ocean basins,” Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 42, 313–345 (1989).
N. M. Sushchevskaya, N. A. Migdisova, B. V. Belyatskii, and A. A. Peyve, “Genesis of enriched tholeiitic magmas in the western segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge, south Atlantic Ocean,” Geochem. Int. 41 (1), 1–20 (2003).
N. M. Sushchevskaya, B. V. Belyatsky, G. L. Leitchenkov, V. G. Batanova and A. V. Sobolev, “Geochemical characteristics of Jurassic plume magmatism in Ahlmannryggen Massif (Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica),” Dokl. Earth Sci. 486 (1), 529–532 (2019).
H. Svensen, F. Corfu, S. Polteau, Ø. Hammer, and S. Planke, “Rapid magma emplacement in the Karoo Large Igneous Province,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 325–326, 1–9 (2012).
J. Tuff, E. Takahashi, and S. A. Gibson, “Experimental constraints on the role of garnet pyroxenite in the genesis of high–Fe mantle plume derived melts,” J. Petrol. 46 (10), 2023–2058 (2005).
J. J. Veevers, “Reconstructions before rifting and drifting reveal the geological connections between Antarctica and its conjugates in Gondwanaland,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 111, 249–318 (2012).
S. K. Vuori and A. V. Luttinen, “The Jurassic gabbroic intrusions of Utpostane and Muren: insights into Karoo–related plutonism in Dronning Maud Land Antarctica,” Antarct. Sci. 15, 283–301 (2003).
B. L. Weaver, D. A. Wood, J. Tarney, and J.-L. Joron, “Role of subducted sediment in the genesis of ocean island basalts: Geochemical evidence from South Atlantic Ocean islands,” Geology 14, 275–278 (1986).
Z. F. Yang, J. Li, W. F. Liang, and Z. H. Luo, “On the chemical markers of pyroxenite contributions in continental basalts in Eastern China: implications for source lithology and the origin of basalts,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 157, 18–31 (2016).
X. Zhang, A. V. Luttinen, D. H. Elliot, K. Larsson, and K. A. Foland, “Early stages of Gondwana breakup: the 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Jurassic basaltic rocks from western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and implications for the timing of magmatic and hydrothermal events,” J. Geophys. Res. B108, (2003). https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB001070
A. Zindler and S. Hart, “Chemical geodynamics,” Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 14, 493–571 (1986).