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Cladoendesis of Parametabola and Systematic Position of the Extinct Taxon Tetrastigmoptera taxon nov.


A new circumscriptional name Tetrastigmoptera taxon n. is suggested for the extinct taxon comprising the Cretaceous species Mydiognathus eviohlhoffae Yoshizawa et Lienhard, 2016 (= Psocorrhyncha burmitica Huang et al., 2016) and Burmopsylla maculata Liang et al., 2016, described based on well-preserved specimens from Burmese amber, and also some Triassic and Permian species known by less completely preserved specimens. This taxon is known under the typified names Permopsocida and Archipsyllidae. The systematic position of Tetrastigmoptera remains unclear. The formerly expressed opinions about this taxon belonging to Acercaria and about its relationship with Copeognatha and/or Condylognatha are erroneous, caused by wrong notion about the structure of recent insects. The structure and assumed function of the mouth apparatus of Copeognatha, which basically differs from that of Tetrastigmoptera and other chewing insects, is discussed. The phylogenetic significance of such characters as bimotority, presence of tibial spurs, number of tarsomeres, presence of cerci, and some others is discussed. It is demonstrated yet again that the parsimony principle and the taxon/character matrices are totally inconsistent with phylogenetic analysis.

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Kluge, N.J. Cladoendesis of Parametabola and Systematic Position of the Extinct Taxon Tetrastigmoptera taxon nov.. Entmol. Rev. 99, 362–383 (2019).

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