Tachinid (Diptera, Tachinidae) parasitoids of sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta)
A list of 31 genera of tachinid parasitoids of sawflies is given. Despite the ecological and habitual similarity of sawflies and Lepidoptera, utilization of sawflies by tachinids was not as successful from the evolutionary point of view as utilization of Lepidoptera. Parasitism of tachinids in sawflies is evidently secondary; it appeared repeatedly and originates from parasitism in Lepidoptera. Most genera of tachinids are polyphagous. Endoparasitic Hymenoptera are koinobionts similarly to tachinids. The direct contact of the parasitoid with active mobile host larva not only results in complication of behavior and its specialization, but also promotes formation of different morphological innovations faster than that in idiobionts.