Entomological Review

, Volume 92, Issue 8, pp 919–931 | Cite as

Analysis of the taxonomic structure of the crane fly family Limoniidae (Diptera) based on the larval characters

  • N. P. KrivosheinaEmail author


A morphological study of the larval characters in the genera Elephantomyia, Helius, Microlimonia, Lipsothrix, and Teucholabis was conducted. Significant differences between Elephantomyia and Helius were discovered; Elephantomyia should be placed in the subfamily Hexatominae, while Helius cannot be assigned to any known subfamily. The genus Microlimonia has nothing in common with other representatives of the tribe Limoniini, and the genera Lipsothrix and Teucholabis, with those of Gonomyini; these genera cannot be included in any of the existing tribes. The presently accepted subdivision of the Limoniidae into 4 subfamilies does not reflect its actual diversity.


Entomological Review Anterior Margin Head Capsule Ventral Lobe Pigment Spot 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alexander, C.P., “The Crane Flies of New York, Part I. Distribution and Taxonomy of the Adult Flies,” Cornell Univ. Agric. Exper. Station Memoirs 25, 771–993 (1919).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Byers, G.W., “The Crane Fly Genus Chionea in North America,” Kansas Univ. Science Bull. 52, 59–195 (1983).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krivosheina, M.G., “Contributions to the Biology of Xylobiont Limoniid Flies of the Genus Libnotes (Diptera, Limoniidae) with Description of Immature Stages,” Zool. Zh. 87(5), 547–567 (2008) [Entomol. Rev. 88 (4), 456–476 (2008)].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krivosheina, M.G., “Description of the Immature Stages of Discobola annulata (Linnaeus, 1758) and D. margarita Alexander, 1924 (Diptera, Limoniidae) with Notes in Their Biology,” Zoosymposia 3, 89–99 (2009a).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krivosheina, M.G., “On the Biology of Limoniid Flies of the Genus Teucholabis Osten Sacken (Diptera, Limoniidae) with a Description of Immature Stages of Teucholabis esakii (Alexander) and T. yezoensis Alexander,” Entomol. Obozr. 88(1), 185–193 (2009b) [Entomol. Rev. 89 (1), 91–98 (2009)].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krivosheina, M.G., “On the Morphology and Ecology of the Previously Unknown Larva of the Short-Palped Crane Fly Nasiternella varinervis (Zetterstedt, 1851) (Diptera, Pediciidae),” Entomol. Obozr. 88(4), 769–773 (2009c) [Entomol. Rev. 89 (9), 1055–1058 (2009)].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Krivosheina, N.P., Ontogeny and Evolution of Diptera (Nauka, Moscow, 1969) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krivosheina, N.P., “Morpho-Ecological Aspects of Early Evolution of Diptera,” in Wood Destroying Insects and Their Entomophages (Nauka, Moscow, 1979), pp. 5–23 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krivosheina, N.P., “The Natural System of Diptera Considering the Correlations of Imaginal and Larval Characters,” in Morpho-Ecological Adaptations of Insects in Terrestrial Communities (Nauka, Moscow, 1982), pp. 5–11 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krivosheina, N.P., “Approaches to Improving the System of Diptera,” Entomol. Obozr. 67(2), 378–390 (1988).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krivosheina, N.P., “On the Larval Morphology and Ecology of the Limoniid Microlimonia machidai (Diptera, Limoniidae),” Zool. Zh. 88(12), 1525–1530 (2009) [Entomol. Rev. 90 (1), 135–139 (2010)].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krivosheina, N.P., “New Data on the Ecology and Morphology of Xylobiont Larvae of the Genus Elephantomyia Ost.-Sack. (Diptera, Limoniidae),” Entomol. Obozr. 89(2), 459–472 (2010) [Entomol. Rev. 90 (5), 603–614 (2010)].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krivosheina, N.P. and Mamaev, B.M., Keys to the Larvae of Xylobiotic Dipterans (Nauka, Moscow, 1967) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krivosheina, N.P. and Zaitsev, A.I., “Phylogeny and Evolutionary Ecology of Diptera,” in Advances in Science and Technology. Entomology. Vol. 9 (VINITI, Moscow, 1989), pp. 1–164 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lackschewitz, P., “Eine neue Elephantomyia O.-S. (Dipt., Nematocera Polyneura) aus dem Ostbalticum,” Konowia 11, 218–222 (1932).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oosterbroek, P., Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World (Diptera, Tipuloidea: Pediciidae, Limoniidae, Cylindrotomidae, Tipulidae), version of 2010,
  17. 17.
    Oosterbroek, P. and Theowald, Br., “Phylogeny of the Tipuloidea Based on Characters of Larvae and Pupae (Diptera, Nematocera) with an Index to the Literature except Tipulidae,” Tijdschr. Entomol. 134, 211–267 (1991).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Podėnienė, V., “Records of New and Little-Known Larvae of the Family Limoniidae (Diptera, Nematocera) from Lithuania.” Acta Zool. Lit. 12(3), 294–308 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savchenko, E.N., “Limoniidae: Subfamily Limoniinae,” in Fauna of the Ukraine. Vol. 14. Diptera Nematocera. Issue 4 (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1983a), pp. 1–180 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Savchenko, E.N., Short-Palped Crane Flies of the Southern Primorye (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1983b) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Savchenko, E.N., “Short-Palped Crane Flies, Limoniidae. General Characteristic and the Subfamilies Pediciinae and Hexatominae,” in Fauna of the Ukraine. Vol. 14. Diptera Nematocera. Issue 2 (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1986), pp. 1–380 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Savchenko, E.N., Short-Palped Crane Flies in the Fauna of the USSR. Keys to Supraspecific Taxa and a Review of Species (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1989) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Savchenko, E.N. and Krivolutskaya, G.O., Short-Palped Crane Flies of the South Kuril Islands and the South of Sakhalin (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1976) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Savchenko, E.N., Oosterbroek, P., and Theowald, Br., “Family Limoniidae,” in Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Trichoceridae-Nymphomyiidae (Hung. Nat. Hist. Mus., Budapest, 1992), pp. 183–369.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Starý, J., “Phylogeny and Classification of Tipulomorpha, with Special Emphasis on the Family Limoniidae,” Acta Zool. Cracov. 35(1), 11–36 (1992).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wood, D.M. and Borkent, A., “Phylogeny and Classification of the Nematocera,” in Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Vol. 3, Ed. by J.E. McAlpine et al. (Biosystematic Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, 1989), pp. 1333–1370.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations