Entomological Review

, Volume 92, Issue 3, pp 291–295 | Cite as

Ecological prerequisites for spread of bloodsucking mosquitoes

  • E. B. Vinogradova


The spread of mosquitoes beyond the initial ranges and the ecological prerequisites for colonization of new territories are considered for several mosquito species which are active bloodsuckers and vectors of many disease agents. The invasion of homodynamic Aedes aegypti from Africa into the tropical zone of several continents has probably occurred during the last 400 years by means of transportation of the eggs and larvae mainly by sea ships. In the new areas mosquitoes occupied breeding places similar to those in their native ranges. On the contrary, the urban mosquito Culex pipiens f. molestus, introduced from the subtropical areas of Africa into Europe and other continents in the XX century, found a new type of habitat: underground constructions with polluted water where the mosquito develops the year round. This was preconditioned by such specific biological features as autogeny, stenogamy, and homodynamy (seasonal development without diapause). Aedes albopictus originated from Southeast Asia and invaded four continents (Europe, North and South America, and Africa) in 1980–2000 owing to its high capacity of adaptation to various climatic conditions (high viability of eggs, variation in the ability for diapause and mechanisms of diapause control between the strains, etc.). The eggs and larvae of this mosquito were transported by sea in used car tires. The models predicting the distribution of invasive species and the ways of their spread (by sea, air, motor transport) are discussed.


Entomological Review Lymphatic Filariasis Yellow Fever Ecological Prerequisite Chikungunya 
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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. B. Vinogradova
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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