Formation of Dissipative Structures in an Amorphous Film
The formation of nanothin spatial dissipative structures (SDSs) of hexagonal selenium with elastic rotational curvature of the lattice about  in an amorphous film was considered. It was established that nanothin SDSs form in thermal gradient treatment of an amorphous film by one-side heating of its lower surface at T = 453 K. The state of pseudo-single crystal, which precedes the formation of a nanothin SDS in an amorphous film, is a state with a high concentration of vacancies. Under the action of the temperature difference ΔT, vacancies and selenium atoms undergo thermal diffusion in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the pseudo-single crystal. It was shown that, when ΔT reaches critical values, there is a transition from the structure of a pseudo-single crystal to the structure of a rhombic nanothin SDS of hexagonal selenium. The heat flux through the nanothin SDS in the direction perpendicular to its surface ensures the entropy export to the environment. After the thermal gradient treatment of the amorphous film, the nanothin SDS is quenched by cooling it in air; in this process, there is quenching of nonequilibrium structural defects—atoms and vacancies displaced from equilibrium positions. The quenching makes the nanothin SDS stable. The formation of nanothin SDSs of hexagonal selenium with elastic rotational curvature of the lattice about  in an amorphous film occurs under conditions satisfying the theory of the formation of dissipative structures.
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