Skip to main content

Evidence of Toxocara Eggs in Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Gervais, 1850) Coprolites from the Pleistocene of Taurida Cave (Crimea)

Abstract

Coprolites of the hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris from the Lower Pleistocene (Upper Villafranchian) of Taurida Cave (Crimea) were studied. One of the three hyena coprolites contained helminth eggs. These eggs were assigned to Toxocara sp. based on their size and morphology. Toxocariasis was evidently a very common infestation among extinct hyena species. The find of toxocara in P. brevirostris coprolite from the Taurida Cave is the earliest evidence of roundworm infestation in P. brevirostris.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.

REFERENCES

  1. Lopatin, A.V., Vislobokova, I.A., Lavrov, A.V., et al., Taurida cave, a new locality of the Early Pleistocene vertebrates in Crimea, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2019, vol. 485, no. 3, pp. 381–385.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Lavrov, A.V., Gimranov, D.O., Startsev, D.B., and Lopatin, A.V., Giant hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Hyaenidae, Carnivora) from the lower Pleistocene of Taurida cave, Crimea, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Nauki Zhizni, 2021, vol. 496, pp. 10–14.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Turner, A. and Anton, M., The giant hyaena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Mammalia, Carnivora, Hyaenidae), Geobios, 1996, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 455–468.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Chin, K., Analyses of coprolites produced by carnivorous vertebrates, Paleontol. Soc. Pap., 2002, vol. 8, pp. 43–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Scott, L., Fernandez-Jalvo, Y., Carrion, J., and Brink, J., Preservation and interpretation of pollen in hyaena coprolites: Taphonomic observations from Spain and southern Africa, Palaeontologia Africana, 2003, vol. 39, pp. 83–91.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Jouy-Avantin, F., Combes, C., Miskovsky, J.C., and Mone, H., Helminth eggs in animal coprolites from a Middle Pleistocene site in Europe, J. Parasitol., 1999, vol. 85, pp. 376–379.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Horwitz, L. and Goldberg, P., A study of Pleistocene and Holocene hyena coprolites, J. Archaeol. Sci., 1989, vol. 16, pp. 71–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Perri, A.R., Heinrich, S., Gur-Arieh, S., and Saun-ders, J.J., Earliest evidence of Toxocara sp. in a 1.2-million-yr-old extinct hyena (Pachycrocuta brevirostris) coprolite from Northwest Pakistan, J. Parasitol., 2017, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 138–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ferreira, L.F., Araujo, A., and Duarte, A.N., Nematode larvae in fossilized animal coprolites from lower and Middle Pleistocene sites, central Italy, J. Parasitol., 1993, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 440–442.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Larkin, N.R., Alexander, J., and Lewis, M.D., Using experimental studies of recent faecal material to examine hyaena coprolites from the West Runton Freshwater Bed, Norfolk, U.K., J. Archaeol. Sci., 2000, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 19–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bouchet, F., Araujo, A., Harter, S., et al., Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) eggs in the Pleistocene site of Menez-Dregan, France (300 000–500 000 years before present), Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 2003, vol. 98, pp. 137–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Jouy-Avantin, F., et al., A standardized method for the description and the study of coprolites, J. Archaeol. Sci., 2003, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 367–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Beltrame, M.O., Sardella, N.H., Fugassa, M.H., and Barberena, R., A paleoparasitological analysis of rodent coprolites from the Cueva Huenul 1 archaeological site in Patagonia (Argentina), Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 2012, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 604–612.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cherepanov, A.A. and Moskvin, A.C., Kotel’Nikov, G.A., and Khrenov, V.M., Atlas. Differentsial’naya diagnostika gel’mintozov po morfologicheskoi strukture yaits i lichinok vozbuditelei (Atlas. Differential Diagnosis of Helminthiases According to the Morphological Structure of Eggs and Larvae of Pathogens), Moscow: Rossel’khozakademiya, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Engh, A.L. et al., Coprologic survey of parasites of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, J. Wildl. Dis., 2003, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 224–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Eom, K.S., et al., Identity of Spirometra theileri from a leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in Tanzania, Korean J. Parasitol., 2019, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 639–645.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Mozgovoi, A.A., Askaridy zhivotnykh i cheloveka i vyzyvaemye imi zabolevaniya (Ascaris of Animals and Humans and the Diseases Caused by Them), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1953.

  18. Heitlinger, E., Ferreira, S.C.M., Thierer, D., Hofer, H., and East, M.L., The intestinal eukaryotic and bacterial biome of spotted hyenas: the impact of social status and age on diversity and composition, Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol., 2017, vol. 7, art. ID 262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. O. Gimranov.

Additional information

Translated by E. Makeeva

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sivkova, T.N., Khantemirov, D.R., Gimranov, D.O. et al. Evidence of Toxocara Eggs in Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Gervais, 1850) Coprolites from the Pleistocene of Taurida Cave (Crimea). Dokl Biol Sci 504, 82–84 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0012496622030036

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S0012496622030036

Keywords: