Cosmic Research

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 364–383

Structure of the Venusian atmosphere from surface up to 100 km

  • L. V. Zasova
  • V. I. Moroz
  • V. M. Linkin
  • I. V. Khatuntsev
  • B. S. Maiorov
Article

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to summarize the experimental data on the atmosphere of Venus obtained after 1985, when the VIRA (Venus International Reference Atmosphere) or COSPAR model was published. Among the most important results that have appeared since then are the following: measurements of the vertical temperature profile by the VEGA spacecraft with high precision and high altitude resolution; measurements made with balloons of the VEGA spacecraft; radio occultation measurements of Magellan, Venera-15, and Venera-16; and temperature profiles derived from the data of infrared spectrometry obtained by Venera-15. The new result as compared to VIRA is the creation of a model of the atmosphere in the altitude range 55 to 100 km dependent on local time. This model is presented in our paper in tabulated form.

PACS numbers

96.30.Ea 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Moroz, V.I., Huntress, W.H., and Shevalev, I.L., Planetary Missions in the 20th Century, Kosm. Issled., 2002, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 451–481.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huntress, W.H., Moroz, V.I., and Shevalev, I.L., Lunar and Planetary Robotic and Exploration Missions in the 20th Century, Space Sci. Rev., 2002, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 541–649.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kliore, A., Moroz, V.I., and Keating, G., The Venus International Reference Atmosphere, Adv. Space Res., 1985, no. 11.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seiff, A., Schofield, J.T., Kliore, A.J., et al., Models of the Structure of the Atmosphere of Venus from the Surface to 100 km Altitude, Adv. Space Res., 1985, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 3–58.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oertel, D., Moroz, V.I., Linkin, V.M., et al., Infrared Experiment on Venera-15 and Venera-16 Orbital Stations: 1. Methods and First Results, Kosm. Issled., 1985, vol. 23, pp. 191–205.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oertel, D., Moroz, V.I., Spankuch, D., et al., Infrared Spectrometry from Venera-15 and Venera-16, Adv. Space Res., 1987, vol. 5, p. 25.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moroz, V.I., Oertel, D., Linkin, V.M., et al., Venus Spacecraft’s Infrared Radiance Spectra and Some Aspects of Their Interpretation, Appl. Opt., 1986, vol. 25, pp. 1710–1719.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yakovlev, O.I., Gubenko, V.N., Matygov, S.S., et al., Venusian Atmosphere in the Southern Near-Polar Region, Kosm. Issled., 1987, vol. 25, pp. 258–266.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yakovlev, O.I., Matygov, S.S., Efimov, A.I., et al., Venusian Atmosphere in the Northern Polar Region, Kosm. Issled., 1987, vol. 25, pp. 267–274.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yakovlev, O.I., Matygov, S.S., and Gubenko, V.N., Venera-15 and 16 Middle Atmosphere Profiles from Radar Occultations: Polar and Near-Polar Atmosphere of Venus, Icarus, 1991, vol. 94, pp. 493–510.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Linkin, V.M., Kerzhanovich, V.V., Lipatov, A.N., et al., Thermal Structure of the Venus Atmosphere in the Middle Cloud Layer, Science, 1986, vol. 231, pp. 1420–1422.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Linkin, V.M., Blamon, J., Devyatkin, S.I., et al., Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere of Venus according to the Data of Measurements by Landing Vehicle Vega-2, Kosm. Issled., 1987, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 659–672.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crisp, D., Ingersoll, A.P., Hildebrand, C.E., and Prenston, R.A., VEGA Balloon Meteorological Measurements, Adv. Space Res., 1990, vol. 10, pp. 109–124.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belton, J.S., Gierasch, P.J., Smith, M.D., et al., Images from Galileo of the Venus Cloud Deck, Science, 1991, vol. 253, pp. 1531–1536.ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carlson, R.W., Baines, K.H., Encrenaz, Th., et al., Galileo Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy Measurements at Venus, Science, 1991, vol. 253, pp. 1541–1548.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Drossart, P.B., Bézard, B.Th., Encrenaz, Th., et al., Search for Spatial Variations of the H2O Abundance in the Lower Atmosphere of Venus from NIMS-Galileo, Planet. Space Sci., 1993, vol. 41, pp. 495–504.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grinspoon, D.H., Pollack, J.B., Sitton, B.R., et al., Probing Venus’ Cloud Structure with Galileo-NIMS, Planet. Space Sci., 1993, vol. 41, pp. 515–542.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roos-Serote, M., Drossart, P., Encrenaz, Th., et al., The Thermal Structure and Dynamics of the Atmosphere of Venus between 70–90 km from the Galileo-NIMS Spectra, Icarus, 1995, vol. 114, pp. 300–309.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bezard, B., de Bergh, C., Crisp, D., and Maillard, J.-P., The Deep Atmosphere of Venus Revealed by High-Resolution Nightside Spectra, Nature, 1990, vol. 345, pp. 508–511.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pollack, J.B., Dalton, J., Grinspoon, D., et al., Near-Infrared Light from Venus’ Nightside—A Spectroscopic Analysis, Icarus, 1993, vol. 103, pp. 1–42.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taylor, F.W., Crisp, D., and Bezard, B., Near Infrared Sounding of the Lower Atmosphere of Venus, in Venus II, Tucson, Arizona: Univ. of Arizona Press, 1997, pp. 325–352.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hinson, D. and Jenkins, V., Magellan Radio Occultation Measurements of Atmospheric Waves on Venus, Icarus, 1995, vol. 114, p. 310.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baines, K.H., Bellucci, G., Bibring, J.-P., et al., Detection of Sub-Micron Radiation from the Surface of Venus by Cassini/VIMS, Icarus, 2000, vol. 148, pp. 307–311.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kliore, A. and Patel, V., Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus Radio Occultations, Icarus, 1982, vol. 52, pp. 320–334.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kliore, A.J., Recent Results on Venus Atmosphere from Pioneer Venus Radio Occultations, Adv. Space Res., 1985, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 41–49.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moroz, V.I. and Zasova, L.V., VIRA-2: A Review of Inputs for Updating the Venus International Reference Atmosphere, Adv. Space Res., 1997, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1191–1201.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schafer, K., Zasova, L.V., Spankuch, D., et al., Structure of the Middle Atmosphere of Venus from Analyses of Fourier-Spectrometer Measurements aboard Venera-15, Adv. Space Res., 1987, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 17–24.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schafer, K., Dubois, R., Haus, R., et al., Infrared Fourier Spectrometer Experiment from Venera-15, Adv. Space Res., 1990, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 57–66.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schafer, K., Linkin, V.M., Dethloff, K., et al., Temperature and Thermal Wind Field of the Middle Atmosphere of Venus from Venera-15 Data, in Veroffenlichungen des Forschungsbereichs Geo-und Kosmoswissenschaften, Berlin: Academie-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zasova, L.V., The Structure of the Venusian Atmosphere at High Latitudes, Adv. Space Res., 1995, vol. 16, pp. 89–98.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zasova, L.V., Moroz, V.I., and Linkin, V.M., Venera-15, 16 and VEGA Missions as Sources for Improvements of the Venus Reference Atmosphere, Adv. Space Res., 1996, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 171–180.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zasova, L.V., Khatountsev, I.A., Moroz, V.I., and Ignatiev, N.I., Structure of the Venus Middle Atmosphere: Venera 15 Fourier Spectrometry Data Revisited, Adv. Space Res., 1999, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1559–1568.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zasova, L.V., Khatuntsev, I.V., Ignatiev, N.I., and Moroz, V.I., Local Time Variations of the Middle Atmosphere of Venus: Solar-Related Structures, Adv. Space Res., 2002, vol. 299, no. 2, pp. 243–248.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zasova, L.V., Moroz, V.I., Formisano, V., et al., Infrared Spectrometry of Venus: IR Fourier Spectrometer on Venera 15 as a Precursor of PFS for Venus Express, Adv. Space Res., 2004, vol. 34, pp. 1655–1667.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zasova, L.V., Ignatiev, N.I., Khatuntsev, I.V., and Linkin, V.M., Structure of the Venus Atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci., 2006, in press.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seiff, A., Kirk, D., Young, R., et al., Measurements of Thermal Structure and Thermal Contrasts in the Atmosphere of Venus and Related Dynamic Observations: Results from the Four Pioneer Venus Probes, J. Geophys. Res., 1980, vol. 85 A, pp. 7903–7933.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. V. Zasova
    • 1
  • V. I. Moroz
    • 1
  • V. M. Linkin
    • 1
  • I. V. Khatuntsev
    • 1
  • B. S. Maiorov
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Research InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations