, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 291–300 | Cite as

The mechanisms and kinetics of initiation of blood coagulation by the extrinsic tenase complex

  • T. A. KovalenkoEmail author
  • M. A. Panteleev
  • A. N. Sveshnikova
Complex Systems Biophysics


The system of hemostasis includes coagulation of blood plasma and formation of platelet aggregate. Plasma clotting is a cascade of proteolytic reactions, triggered by the contact of blood plasma with any tissue except the normal vessel endothelium. During the contact an enzymatic complex is formed of the soluble blood plasma protein, factor VIIa, and a membrane-anchored protein, tissue factor. This complex is called extrinsic tenase; it is the key initiator of blood coagulation. The main substrates of extrinsic tenase are blood plasma factors X and IX. During the reaction they undergo proteolytic cleavage and become active serine proteases, factors Xa and IXa, respectively. Factor Xa in complex with its cofactor factor Va catalyzes formation of the key coagulation enzyme, thrombin, which leads to fibrin polymerization and plasma gelation. Although all of the proteins that participate in this process have been known for a long time, several questions remain unanswered. As an example, what is the role of the reaction surface on which the complex is formed, what is the role of membrane-bound multimeres of factor X (Xa), and in what way does the activation of the factor VII proceed? Here, we review recent theoretical and experimental works focused on the biophysical mechanisms of extrinsic tenase functioning and discuss some of these problems.


blood coagulation extrinsic tenase factor X dimerization mathematical modeling 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. A. Kovalenko
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. A. Panteleev
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. N. Sveshnikova
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Center for Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical PharmacologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Federal Research and Clinical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and ImmunologyMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Faculty of Biological and Medical PhysicsMoscow Institute of Physics and TechnologyMoscow RegionRussia
  5. 5.Therapeutic FacultyPirogov Russian National Research Medical UniversityMoscowRussia

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