Suicidal erythrocyte death, or eryptosis, is the key event in eliciting anemia in numerous pathological conditions, including diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cancer, sepsis, etc. Oxidative stress is an important trigger in the acceleration of erythrocyte loss via eryptosis and an underlying mechanism of anemia emergence in the above pathologies. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for identification of antioxidants and anti-eryptotic agents forthe management of stress-related ailments. Here, we demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-eryptotic properties of the tamarind seed coat ethanol extract (TSCEE) against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress and eryptosis. The presence of probable secondary metabolites in the TSCEE extract was investigated by RP-HPLC. Active groups present in the TSCEE were studied by the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetric studies confirmed the antioxidant potential of TSCEE. The protective effect of TSCEE on red blood cells was confirmed by assessing various eryptotic markers, such as reactive oxygen species generation, intracellular calcium levels, and phosphatidylserine exposure. TSCEE reduced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content and restored the levels of glutathione, antioxidant enzymes, and enzymes involved in glutathione replenishment. In conclusion, TSCEE was found to exhibit multiple therapeutic properties, which makes it a. promising agent for treating oxidative stress-induced eryptosis and subsequent anemia in various pathologies.
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chronic kidney disease
protein carbonyl content
red blood cell
reactive oxygen species
tamarind seed coat ethanol extract.
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D.S. thanks Prof. K. Kemparaju (University of Mysore), Prof. K. S. Girish, Dr. P. Raghavendra Kumar, and M. Bhagyalaksmi (Tumkur University, Tumkur) for their kind help during the study. Authors thank M. Manikanta and B. Swethakumar (University of Mysore) for their kind help in the study.
Funding. J.K. thanks UGC-RGNF, Government of India (New Delhi), for the research fellowship. D.S. thanks DST, Government of India (New Delhi) and VGST, Government of Karanataka, for financial support.
Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Compliance with ethical standards. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Published in Russian in Biokhimiya, 2020, Vol. 85, No. 1, pp. 139–152.
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Kengaiah, J., Nandish, S.K.M., Ramachandraiah, C. et al. Protective Effect of Tamarind Seed Coat Ethanol Extract on Eryptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress. Biochemistry Moscow 85, 119–129 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920010113