Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 83, Issue 6, pp 674–689 | Cite as

Calcineurin and Its Role in Synaptic Transmission

  • E. O. Tarasova
  • A. E. Gaydukov
  • O. P. Balezina
Review
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Calcineurin (CaN) is a serine/threonine phosphatase widely expressed in different cell types and structures including neurons and synapses. The most studied role of CaN is its involvement in the functioning of postsynaptic structures of central synapses. The role of CaN in the presynaptic structures of central and peripheral synapses is less understood, although it has generated a considerable interest and is a subject of a growing number of studies. The regulatory role of CaN in synaptic vesicle endocytosis in the synapse terminals is actively studied. In recent years, new targets of CaN have been identified and its role in the regulation of enzymes and neurotransmitter secretion in peripheral neuromuscular junctions has been revealed. CaN is the only phosphatase that requires calcium and calmodulin for activation. In this review, we present details of CaN molecular structure and give a detailed description of possible mechanisms of CaN activation involving calcium, enzymes, and endogenous and exogenous inhibitors. Known and newly discovered CaN targets at pre-and post-synaptic levels are described. CaN activity in synaptic structures is discussed in terms of functional involvement of this phosphatase in synaptic transmission and neurotransmitter release.

Keywords

calcineurin calcineurin inhibitors endocytosis L-type calcium channels regulation of receptors/channels by phosphatases and kinases 

Abbreviations

AID

autoinhibitory domain

AKAP

protein kinase A anchoring protein

AMPA

α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpropionic acid

CaM

calmodulin

CaMKII

calcium/calmodulin-dependent type II kinase

CaN

calcineurin

CaN-A

calcineurin catalytic subunit

CaN-B

calcineurin regulatory subunit

CDK5

cyclin-dependent kinase 5

CREB

cAMP-response element-binding protein

CsA

cyclosporine A

EPP

end-plate potential

FK506

tacrolimus

FKBP12

FK506-binding protein

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

GAP43

neuromodulin

I-1

endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1

LTD

long-term depression

LTP

long-term potentiation

NFAT

nuclear factor of activated T cells

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartate

PKA

protein kinase A

PKC

protein kinase C

PP1

protein phosphatase 1

RCAN

calcineurin regulatory protein

TRPV1

transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. O. Tarasova
    • 1
  • A. E. Gaydukov
    • 1
    • 2
  • O. P. Balezina
    • 1
  1. 1.Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityFaculty of BiologyMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Pirogov Russian National Research Medical UniversityMoscowRussia

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