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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 79, Issue 13, pp 1562–1583 | Cite as

Role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in regulation of redox-dependent processes

  • E. V. Kalinina
  • N. N. Chernov
  • M. D. Novichkova
Review

Abstract

Over the last decade fundamentally new features have been revealed for the participation of glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin) in cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein folding, and cell signaling. Reduced glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in maintaining cellular redox status by participating in thiol-disulfide exchange, which regulates a number of cell functions including gene expression and the activity of individual enzymes and enzyme systems. Maintaining optimum GSH/GSSG ratio is essential to cell viability. Decrease in the ratio can serve as an indicator of damage to the cell redox status and of changes in redox-dependent gene regulation. Disturbance of intracellular GSH balance is observed in a number of pathologies including cancer. Consequences of inappropriate GSH/GSSG ratio include significant changes in the mechanism of cellular redox-dependent signaling controlled both nonenzymatically and enzymatically with the participation of isoforms of glutathione transferase and glutaredoxin. This review summarizes recent data on the role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in the regulation of cellular redox-dependent processes.

Key words

glutathione glutathione transferase glutaredoxin redox regulation 

Abbreviations

AIF

apoptosis-inducing factor

AMPK

serine/threonine AMP-activated protein kinase

ARE

antioxidant responsive element

ASK1

apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1

BSO

buthionine sulfoximine

ERK

extracellular signal-regulated kinase

γ-GCL

γ-glutamylcysteine ligase

GPx

glutathione peroxidase

Grx

glutaredoxin

GS

glutathione synthetase

GSH/GSSG

glutathione reduced/oxidized

GST

glutathione S-transferase

γ-GT

γ-glutamyltransferase

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LPO

lipid peroxidation

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

mGSH

mitochondrial glutathione

nGSH

nuclear glutathione

OGC

2-oxyglutarate carrier

PARP

poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase

Prx

peroxiredoxin

RNS

reactive nitrogen species

ROS

reactive oxygen species

Trx

thioredoxin

TrxR

thioredoxin reductase

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. V. Kalinina
    • 1
  • N. N. Chernov
    • 1
  • M. D. Novichkova
    • 1
  1. 1.Peoples’ Friendship University of RussiaMoscowRussia

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