Observed wave climate trends in the offshore Black Sea from 1990 to 2014


The main objective of the present study is the analysis of storm activity in the Black Sea over the last 25 years, using the method of mathematical modeling. Our results allow us to conclude that the average annual wind wave power has increased by 10–15% from 1990 to 2014. This tendency is attributable mainly to the strengthening of atmospheric circulation in the east of the basin.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    A. G. Zatsepin, V. B. Piotukh, A. O. Korzh, O. N. Kukleva, and V. A. Soloviev, “Variability of currents in the coastal zone of the Black Sea from longterm measurements with a bottom mounted ADCP,” Oceanology (Engl. Transl.) 52 (5), 579–592 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Guidelines on the Wind and Waving Regime of the Baltic, Northern, Black, Azov, and Mediterranean Seas (Russian Maritime Register of Shipping, St. Petersburg, 2006). ISBN 5–89331-071–3

  3. 3.

    A. Akpinar and M. Ihsan Kömürcü, “Assessment of wave energy resource of the Black Sea based on 15-year numerical hindcast data,” Appl. Energy 101, 502–512 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    B. Aydogan, B. Ayat, and Y. Yüksel, “Black Sea wave energy atlas from 13 years hindcasted wave data,” Renew. Energy 57, 436–447 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    N. Booij, R. Ris, and L. Holthuijsen, “A third-generation wave model for coastal regions. 1. Model description and validation,” J. Geophys. Res., No. 104, 7649–7666 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    G. Boyle, Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2004).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Z. Cherneva, N. Andreeva, P. Pilar, et al., “Validation of the WAMC4 wave model for the Black Sea,” Coastal Eng., No. 55, 881–893 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    DHI Water & Environment, MIKE 21, Spectral Wave Module, 2007.

  9. 9.

    V. Galabov, “On the wave energy potential of the Bulgarian Black Sea,” in Proceedings of the Conference SGEM 2013, Varna, Bulgaria, June 16–22, 2013, pp. 831–838.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R. D. Kos’yan, B. V. Divinsky, and O. V. Pushkarev, “Measurements of parameters of wave processes in the open sea near Gelendzhik,” in The Eight Workshop of NATO TU-WAVES/Black Sea (Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 1998), pp. 5–6.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    E. Rusu, “Wave energy assessments in the Black Sea,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., No. 14, 359–372 (2009). doi: 10.1007/s00773-009-0053-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J. M. Smith, A. R. Sherlock, and D. T. Resio, STWAVE: Steady-State Spectral Wave Model, User’s Guide for STWAVE Version 3.0. ERDC/CHL SR-01-01 (U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 2001).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    C. V. Trusca, “Reliability of SWAN model simulations for the Black Sea Romanian coast,” in Maritime Transportation and Exploitation of Ocean and Coastal Resources–Guedes Soares, Ed. by Y. Garbatov and N. Fonseca (Taylor and Francis, London, 2005). ISBN 0 415 390362

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Wave Climatology of the Turkish Coast, NATO TU-WAVES Project. http://www.medcoast.org.tr/tuwaves/introduction.htm

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. V. Divinsky.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © B.V. Divinsky, R.D. Kos’yan, 2015, published in Okeanologiya, 2015, Vol. 55, No. 6, pp. 928–934.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Divinsky, B.V., Kos’yan, R.D. Observed wave climate trends in the offshore Black Sea from 1990 to 2014. Oceanology 55, 837–843 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0001437015060041

Download citation


  • Wave Height
  • Significant Wave Height
  • Wind Wave
  • Wave Climate
  • Spectral Wave Model