Skip to main content

Clouds as Manifestation of Wave Disturbance above Mountain Ridges


Eleven photographs of clouds observed above the mountains of the Southern Crimea on March 24, 2011, in the time period from 17:40 to 18:10 are analyzed. Based on the results of photography from different sides and altitude levels, as well as theoretical and experimental studies of similar situations, the assumption that clouds existed in the crests of waves arising when an air stream was flowing over the mountains is verified. The estimated values of the height, length, and vertical depth of the clouds led to the conclusion that these clouds had a wave nature.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 10.


  1. V. N. Kozhevnikov, Atmospheric Disturbances in the Flow around Mountains (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 1999) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  2. L. N. Gutman, Introduction to the Nonlinear Theory of Mesometeorological Processes (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1969) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  3. A. Kh. Khrgian, Atlas of Clouds (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1978) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  4. V. N. Kozhevnikov, “Modeling of atmospheric disturbances over the Crimean mountains,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 55 (4), 344–351 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. V. N. Kozhevnikov, “Modeling of orographic disturbances (analysis of adequacy of the analytical model according to data of cloud measurements over the Crimean mountains),” Uch. Zap. Fiz. Fak. Mosk. Univ., No. 3, 1930901–1930907 (2019).

  6. G. Lyra, “Theorie der stationären Leewellenströmung in freier Atmosphäre,” Z. Angew. Math. Mech., No. 1, 1–23 (1943).

Download references


The article was written in memory of recently deceased Moscow astronomer, teacher, and photographer Vitaly Aleksandrovich Romeiko. The article uses his photographs and comments, as well as P.A. Dalin’s coordinate referencing of one of the images and valuable advice given by N.N. Pertsev in discussions. The author is deeply grateful to all for their assistance.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. N. Kozhevnikov.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kozhevnikov, V.N. Clouds as Manifestation of Wave Disturbance above Mountain Ridges. Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 58, 121–130 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • atmospheric physics
  • clouds
  • hydrodynamics
  • modeling
  • airflow over mountains
  • Lyra scale