Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 203–207 | Cite as

Supercooled water near the Glacier front in Spitsbergen

  • E. G. MorozovEmail author
  • A. V. Marchenko
  • Yu. V. Fomin


Measurements of temperature and salinity were performed in the immediate vicinity of Paula Glacier in the Rinders Fjord (Spitsbergen) in March 2013. At a distance of 15 m from the glacier, we found water with significantly smaller salinity than the surrounding waters. The water temperature appeared 0.35°C lower than the freezing temperature. This phenomenon is related to the fact that fresh water flows from the glacier to the sea. The freshwater flowing from the glacier appears in the seawater environment with lower temperature and higher salinity and becomes supercooled while ascending to the surface


supercooling glacier front polythermal glacier Spitsbergen water mixing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. T. Creyts and G. K. C. Clarke, “Hydraulics of sub-glacial supercooling: Theory and simulations for clear water flows,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, F03021 (2010). doi  10.1029/2009JF001417 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Röthlisberger, “Water pressure in intra- and subglacial channels,” J. Glaciol. 11 (62), 177–203 (1972).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. L. Stevens, C. L. Stewart, N. J. Robinson, et al., “Flow and mixing around a glacier tongue,” Ocean Sci. 7, 293–304 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Debenham, “The glacier tongues of McMurdo Sound,” Geogr. J. 131, 369–371 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. O. Jeffries and W. F. Weeks, “Structural characteristics and development of sea ice in the Western Ross Sea,” Antarct. Sci. 5 (1), 63–75 (1992).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    I. A. Dmitrenko, C. Wegner, H. Kassens, et al., “Observations of supercooling and frazil Ice formation in the Laptev Sea coastal polynya,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C05015 (2010). doi  10.1029/2009JC005798 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. J. Robinson, M. J. M. Williams, P. J. Barrett, and A. R. Pyne, “Observations of flow and ice-ocean interaction beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C03025 (2010). doi  10.1029/2008JC005255 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. E. Lawson, J. C. Strasser, E. D. Evenson, et al., “Glaciohydraulic supercooling: a freeze-on mechanism to create stratified, debris-rich basal ice: I. Field evidence,” J. Glaciol. 44 (148), 547–562 (1998).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Skogseth, F. Nilsen, and L. H. Smedsrud, “Supercooled water in an Arctic polynya: Observations and modeling,” J. Glaciol. 55 (189), 43–52 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. D. Krylov and A. G. Zatsepin, “Frazil ice formation due to differential heat and salt exchange across a density interface in polar seas,” J. Mar. Syst. 3, 497–506 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. J. Millero and W. H. Leung, “Thermodynamics of seawater at one atmosphere,” Am. J. Sci. 276 (9), 1035–1077 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu. Ya. Macheret, “Radio Sounding of Glaciers” (Nauchnyi mir, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yu. Ya. Macheret and A. B. Zhuravlev, “Radio-echo sounding of Svalbard glaciers,” J. Glaciol. 28 (99), 295–314 (1982).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu. Ya. Macheret and A. F. Glazovsky, “Estimation of absolute water content in Spitsbergen glaciers from radar sounding data,” Polar Res. 19 (2), 205–216 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. S. Tweed, M. J. Roberts, and A. J. Russell, “Hydrologic monitoring of supercooled discharge from Icelandic glaciers,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 24, 2308–2318 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. G. Morozov
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. V. Marchenko
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yu. V. Fomin
    • 4
  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.The University Center in Svalbard, LongyearbyenLongyearbyen, SpitsbergenNorway
  3. 3.Zubov State Oceanographic InstituteMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Moscow Institute of Physics and TechnologyDolgoprudnyiRussia

Personalised recommendations