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High-Performance Reinforced PTMSP Membranes for Thermopervaporation Removal of Alcohols from Aqueous Media

Abstract

PTMSP membranes reinforced with a metal wire mesh have been fabricated and experimentally studied to increase the permeability and mechanical properties of poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) membranes in the course of thermopervaporation (TPV) removal of butanol from fermentation broths. The effect of the material wire of the mesh (stainless steel and bronze) and mesh size (30–40 μm) on the flux and separation factor in the course of thermopervaporation separation of aqueous solutions of butanol has been experimentally studied. It is shown in this work that the use of a metal wire mesh as a support instead of traditional commercial porous supports does not reduce the separation properties of a PTMSP membrane in the course of TPV removal of butanol from model fermentation mixtures. Separation modes that make it possible to obtain permeate fluxes above 1 kg m−2 h−1 have been found. It is shown in this work that the permeability coefficient of water through PTMSP membranes is 2.5 × 10−5 mol m−2 h−1 kPa−1 and does not depend on the temperature of the feed and thickness of the membranes.

INTRODUCTION

Butanol is an important component of chemical industry. About half of the butanol and its derivatives (glycol ethers, esters with acrylate and methyl acrylate, and butyl acetate) currently produced are used as solvents in the paint and varnish industry, as well as in the creation of plastics and rubber compounds [13]. Butanol is also considered a promising component of liquid fuel due to its high energy content, low vapor pressure, and ability to blend with gasoline and diesel fuel in high proportions [4, 5].

Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation using bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum or Clostridiumbeijerinckii is the main technology used for the bioproduction of butanol [69]. One of the major issues of ABE fermentation is the low yield of butanol induced by the inhibiting effect. The total concentration of solvents in the ABE fermentation which are at a ratio of 3 : 6 : 1 (acetone : butanol : ethanol) rarely exceeds 20 g/L [10]. The problem of the removal of fermentation products is considered one of the major setbacks to the commercialization of bioalcohols.

Many processes of butanol removal from fermentation broths such as distillation [11, 12], extraction [13], adsorption [14], pervaporation [1519], and gas stripping [20] have already been studied. Pervaporation is considered in this work as a less energy-consuming process of butanol removal [21].

Substantial limitations of vacuum pervaporation for the production of bioalcohols from fermentation broths are the low separation factors of commercial hydrophobic membranes (generally based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)). The inleakage of gaseous fermentation products (CO2 and H2) through the membrane is also a substantial problem associated with traditional vacuum pervaporation.

Increasing attention is being paid to thermopervaporation (TPV), which was first proposed for the removal of butanol from fermentation broths in [22] and has been successfully developed in recent years by a number of researchers [2328]. It is emphasized in a review work on the removal of butanol in the processes of bioconversion of biomass [29] that thermopervaporation has high potential for commercial application in the removal of organic components from aqueous media.

Works by Borisov and others showed that the problem of inleakage of the permanent gases during the removal of alcohols from fermentation broths is not present in the TPV where the condensation of the permeate occurs directly in the membrane module on the cold surface near the membrane under atmospheric pressure. However, in the TPV, the moving force is smaller than in the vacuum option. This explains the urgent need for the development of membranes that are highly permeable with respect to alcohols that emerge in the TPV process [23, 24, 30].

Thermopervaporation removal of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from a real fermentation broth obtained on a flour nutrient medium with the application of a commercial MDK-3 composite membrane with a selective layer based on PDMS was studied in [27]. During 50 hours of the experiment, the MDK-3 membrane demonstrated stable transport and separation characteristics. However, low separation characteristics were obtained during the experiment. Thus, the butanol/water separation factor was 12, and the butanol/water permselectivity was 0.6.

The high separation factors in the process of thermopervaporation removal of butanol from aqueous media is demonstrated by a highly permeable glass-like polymer, poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) [24, 28, 31, 32]. During the TPV process of separation of binary aqueous solutions of butanol through a dense PTMSP membrane, the separation factor can reach a value of 120 [24], and butanol/water permselectivity, 5.9 [28]. When moving from binary solutions to multicomponent artificial mixtures and further to fermentation broths, a decrease in the transport and separation properties of PTMSP membranes is observed in both vacuum pervaporation and thermopervaporation in view of their external and internal obstruction by the fermentation byproducts [33, 34]. The decrease in separation characteristics is associated with the sorption of low-volatile fermentation byproducts that are slightly permeable through the membrane (e.g., diols) in the nanocavities of PTMSP. A method of regeneration of a membrane by a butanol-enriched solution (extracting agent) was proposed in [34, 35]. The regeneration was performed by replacing the feeding flux by a butanol–water solution with the ratio of the concentrations of 80–20%, respectively. The treatment of a fouled PTMSP membrane by a butanol-enriched solution made it possible to fully recover the pervaporation characteristics to the initial level. A new method of in situ regeneration of dense PTMSP membranes in the process of TPV removal of butanol from the ABE fermentation broth by the organic phase of the permeate not from the side of the contact with the feed but from the side of the permeate was proposed and implemented in [31]. This regeneration method became possible due to the new design of a TPV module where a porous plate made of stainless steel was used instead of a continuous condensation surface. Due to the proposed periodic in situ regeneration of PTMSP membranes by the organic phase of the permeate, it was possible to stabilize the ABE fluxes at a high level comparable to the industrially applied PDMS membranes. Here, the butanol/water selectivity of a PTMSP membrane exceeded the selectivity of PDMS membranes more than threefold.

Since PTMSP membranes have great potential for the task of the removal of butanol from fermentation broth, the aim of this work was the creation and investigation of composite PTMSP membranes with improved transport and mechanical properties for the thermopervaporation process.

EXPERIMENTAL

Membranes

Samples of PTMSP (Gelest, Inc., United States) were used for the fabrication of membranes without additional reprecipitation of the polymer. PTMSP membranes were obtained by the method of casting of a 1.5 wt % solution of the polymer in chloroform onto cellophane, followed by drying at room temperature for 200 hours. The diameter of the initial films was 7.5 cm. The thickness varied in a range of 9–60 μm.

To obtain PTMSP membranes reinforced with a metal wire mesh, a wire twill-woven mesh made of bronze and stainless steel with square meshes with sizes of 30 and 40 μm (TU (Technical Specification) 14-4-507-99) and a thickness of 70 μm was used. PTMSP membranes reinforced by wire meshes were obtained in a similar manner except that a smooth metal wire mesh was preliminarily placed onto cellophane.

The thickness of the obtained membranes was measured using a Mitutoyo 293 Digimatic QuickMike electronic micrometer with an accuracy of up to ±1 μm.

Composite membranes with a selective layer made of PTMSP were obtained by means of applying a solution of the polymer onto an MFFK-1 porous support (ZAO NTTs Vladipor) using the immersion method by means of touching the forming solution by the support. The membranes were molded on a Cheminstruments EZ Coater EC-200 laboratory bench with a tape deck (the width of the tape was 0.1 m); the tape speed was 0.25 m/min.

Thermopervaporation

Thermopervaporation experiments were performed on the unit shown in Fig. 1. Two fluid circuits with different temperatures were brought to thermopervaporation module 3. The first circuit, in which the Coolant circulated, was closed onto cryostat 7. The second circuit consisted of a vessel with the feed (a 2-L flask) located in thermostat 1 which heated the feed to the defined temperature and peristaltic pump 2 which provided the circulation of the liquid in the circuit. The error of the maintained temperature was ±0.2°C. The temperature of the feed and cooling agent at the inlet to and outlet from the TPV module was measured using thermometers.

Fig. 1.
figure1

Principle scheme of the thermopervaporation unit: (1) a thermostat with feed, (2) a peristaltic pump, (3) a membrane module, (4) a permeate collector, (5) a membrane, (6) a metal condensation surface, and (7) a cryothermostat.

The module consisted of two mirror symmetrical parts separated by membrane 5 and condensation surface 6 with an air gap between them. The permeate condensed onto a metal plate and was removed from the module under the action of gravity into permeate collector 4. The effective area of the membrane was 25.5 cm2.

Thermopervaporation was performed at the temperature of the feed Tsep = 40–80 ± 0.2°C; here, the pressure in the space under the membrane was equal to the atmospheric pressure. The permeate condensed at Tcond = 10°C. The width of the air gap was 2.5 mm. A 1.0 wt % binary aqueous solution of butanol was used as the model fermentation broth. All the solutions were prepared from reagent grade organic solvents using the gravimetric method.

The concentration of the initial mixture and the permeate was determined by gas chromatography on a Crystallux-4000M chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. The chromatographic parameters were as follows: the evaporator temperature was 230°C, column temperature was 180°C, detector temperature was 230°C, and length of the packed column filled with a Porapak Q sorbent was 1 m.

The total permeate flux J, kg m−2 h−1, was determined using the gravimetric method by the formula

$$J = \frac{m}{{St}},$$
((1))

where m is the total weight, kg, of the permeate that penetrated through the membrane with the area S, m2, over time t, h.

The separation factor was determined by the formula

$${\alpha } = \frac{{[{{{{C}_{o}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{{C}_{o}}} {{{C}_{w}}{{]}^{p}}}}} \right. \kern-0em} {{{C}_{w}}{{]}^{p}}}}}}{{[{{{{C}_{o}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{{C}_{o}}} {{{C}_{w}}{{]}^{f}}}}} \right. \kern-0em} {{{C}_{w}}{{]}^{f}}}}}} = \frac{{[{{{{x}_{o}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{{x}_{o}}} {{{x}_{w}}{{]}^{p}}}}} \right. \kern-0em} {{{x}_{w}}{{]}^{p}}}}}}{{[{{{{x}_{o}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{{x}_{o}}} {{{x}_{w}}{{]}^{f}}}}} \right. \kern-0em} {{{x}_{w}}{{]}^{f}}}}}},$$
((2))

where Co and Cw are the weight fractions of the organic component and water in the feed (f) and permeate (p), and xo and xw are the molar fractions of the organic component and water in the feed (f) and permeate (p).

The components fluxes in the permeate were determined as Ji = Jyo.

The efficiency of the thermopervaporation process was characterized by the pervaporation separation index (PSI) which takes into account the dependence of two factors, the permeate flux and separation factor:

$$PSI = J\left( {\alpha {\text{ }}-{\text{ }}1} \right).$$
((3))

To compare the results obtained under different conditions, the data were represented in terms of permeability and permselectivity which were calculated by the following expressions [26, 36]:

$$\left( {\frac{{{{P}_{i}}}}{l}} \right) = \frac{{{{J}_{i}}}}{{{{M}_{{wi}}}\left( {p_{i}^{f} - p_{i}^{p}} \right)}},$$
((4))
$${\alpha }_{i}^{p} = {{\left( {\frac{{{{P}_{i}}}}{l}} \right)} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\left( {\frac{{{{P}_{i}}}}{l}} \right)} {\left( {\frac{{{{P}_{w}}}}{l}} \right)}}} \right. \kern-0em} {\left( {\frac{{{{P}_{w}}}}{l}} \right)}},$$
((5))

where \(\left( {\frac{{{{P}_{i}}}}{l}} \right)\) and \(\left( {\frac{{{{P}_{w}}}}{l}} \right)\)are the permeabilities of the ith component and water, respectively; Mwi is the molecular weight of the ith component; \(p_{i}^{f}\) and \(p_{i}^{p}\) are the pressures of the vapors of the ith component in the feed and permeate, respectively; and \({\alpha }_{i}^{p}\) is the permselectivity of the ith component relative to water.

The partial pressures of the components are tied to the pressures of their saturated vapors and activities in the solution:

$${{p}_{i}}(T) = {{{\gamma }}_{i}}{{x}_{i}}p_{i}^{0}(T),$$
((6))

where γi are the coefficients of activity of the ith component, xi are the molar fractions of the ith component, and \(p_{i}^{0}\) are the pressures of saturated vapors of the ith component at the temperature of the system.

To calculate the coefficients of activity, the approximated four-parameter Margules equation was used, which makes it possible to take the complex interactions between the molecules of butanol and water [37] into account.

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

The morphology of the membranes was studied on a TM-3000 scanning electron microscope (Hitachi, Japan) in back-scattered electrons. During the measurements on the microscope, the value of the accelerating potential was varied from 5 to 15 kV to obtain maximally high-quality and informative images. The preliminary preparation of the membranes occurred as follows: chips of the samples were obtained in a liquid nitrogen atmosphere which were then covered with gold (using a DSR-1 sprayer (NSC, Iran)). The thickness of the layer of the gold film varied from 50 to 100 Å.

Study of the Mechanical Properties of the Membranes

The mechanical properties of the dense PTMSP membranes and PTMSP membranes reinforced with a metal wire mesh (the modulus, tensile strength in MPa as well as elongation at break in %) were determined on a TT-1100 tensile testing machine (ChemInstruments, United States) at the speed of movement of the upper grip of 3.8 cm/min. The samples were films with a width of 1 cm and a length of 5–7 cm. The values of the modulus were determined as the slope of the initial (linear) section of the stress–strain diagram. The distance between the grips of the instrument, mm, as well as the maximum pull force, g, were set. The temperature during the tests fluctuated from 24.0 to 25.7°C and the air humidity was 21.7–23.8%.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Membranes for TPV

The thermopervaporation properties of PTMSP membranes were studied in this work, and the obtained results were compared to the published data on the TPV removal of butanol from aqueous media with the use of commercial organophilic membranes based on PDMS [27]. As is seen from Table 1, PTMSP membranes have maximum values of the butanol flux and separation factor that is nine-fold higher for a PTMSP membrane with a thickness of 60 μm in comparison with the values obtained for commercial membranes. The butanol/water separation factor increases with an increase in the thickness of the membrane. This is associated with the fact that, with the increase in the thickness of the membrane, the partial butanol flux sees a slower decrease in comparison with the water flux, as a result of which the butanol/water separation factor increases. In turn, the weak dependence of the partial alcohol flux on the thickness of the membrane is associated with the fact that, during the pervaporation, the profile of the concentrations of the organic component through the membrane is nonlinear due to its increased affinity to the hydrophobic material of the membrane, and it is confirmed by the nonlinear sorption isotherms [24]. For PTMSP membranes, the PSI was more than 31 kg m−2 h−1 and exceeded the PSI of commercial membranes severalfold. An important fact is that, for a PTMSP membrane with a thickness of 9 μm, the total flux exceeded 1 kg m−2 h−1, which corresponds to the samples of industrial pervaporation membranes. However, PTMSP films with a thickness of less than 30 μm possess insufficient mechanical properties for use in modules with a large surface area of the membrane. To obtain pervaporation membranes with high strength and thin selective layers, a porous support is used. Because of this, we obtained a composite membrane with a selective layer made of PTMSP with a thickness of 5 μm on the same support, MFFK-1, as an MDK-3 membrane that has the maximum value of PSI (15.8 kg m−2 h−1) among the commercial membranes studied in the work. The obtained PTMSP/MFFK composite membrane demonstrated higher TPV characteristics in the separation of a binary aqueous mixture with the concentration of butanol of 1 wt % in comparison with the commercial membranes based on PDMS (Table 1) that were previously studied. However, the values of the separation factor and pervaporation separation index of a PTMSP/MFFK membrane are significantly inferior to the values obtained for dense PTMSP membranes.

Table 1.   Thermopervaporation characteristics of hydrophobic membranes in the separation of a 1 wt % aqueous solution of butanol. Process parameters: Tsep = 60°C and Tcond = 10°C

To compare the transport characteristics of the PTMSP membranes under study, the calculation of the effective permeability coefficients of butanol and water and butanol/water selectivity were studied (Table 2). Dense PTMSP membranes have high permeability coefficients of butanol at almost the same values of the permeability coefficients of water in comparison with a composite PTMSP membrane, which eventually leads to an increased selectivity of separation. An unexpected fact is that the permeability coefficient with respect to butanol for a PTMSP membrane with a thickness of 9 μm exceeds the permeability coefficient of a PTMSP/MFFK composite membrane with a thickness of the selective layer of 5 μm by threefold. Here, the permeability coefficients of water acquire close values. It can therefore be concluded that the presence of a porous support in the structure of the composite membrane imparts significant resistance for the transport of butanol in the used configuration of pervaporation separation. Therefore, traditional composite membranes on a porous support are not effective in the TPV process, which requires the use of alternative materials as the support.

Table 2.   Transport properties of hydrophobic membranes upon the TPV separation of a 1 wt % aqueous solution of butanol. Process parameters: Tsep = 60°C and Tcond = 10°C

PTMSP Membranes Reinforced with a Metal Wire Mesh

The possibility of using metal wire meshes for the fabrication of thermopervaporation membranes based on PTMSP was studied in this work. The option of reinforcement of a membrane with a metal wire mesh was previously proposed in [38] upon studying membranes made of block copolymer polyethers with amides (PEBA) in the process of removal of phenol by vacuum pervaporation. The wire mesh was additionally subjected to heating to change the temperature gradient across the membrane. A metal wire mesh was also used to form composite membranes based on polysiloxanes [39, 40]. The obtained membranes were studied in the process of separation of C3/C1 and C4/C1 hydrocarbons. It was shown that membranes reinforced with a metal wire mesh possess good mechanical properties, and the presence of the wire mesh has no influence on the mass transfer of the target components through the membrane. It was because of this that PTMSP membranes reinforced with a metal wire mesh were obtained and studied for the first time in this work.

The micrographs of such membranes are presented in Fig. 2. It is seen that the selective PTMSP layer goes inside the metal support that provides high mechanical properties of the membrane. Thus, when compared to a dense PTMSP membrane with a thickness of 60 μm, reinforced membranes demonstrate a more than fivefold increase in the strength and a more than threefold increase in the relative elongation (Table 3).

Fig. 2.
figure2

SEM images of a PTMSP membrane reinforced with a metal wire mesh made of stainless steel with a mesh size of 40 μm (PTMSP/NS-40).

Table 3.   Mechanical properties of dense and reinforced PTMSP membranes

The results of the influence of different metal wire meshes on the TPV characteristics of PTMSP membranes are presented in Table 4. Both the materials of the wire mesh (stainless steel and bronze) and the mesh size (30–40 μm) were varied. The weight of the polymer cast onto the wire meshes was the same for all the membranes. As is seen from Table 4, with the increase in the mesh size and decrease in the thermal conductivity of the material of the wire mesh, the permeate flux increases (thermal conductivity: 15 W/mK for stainless steel and 40 W/mK for bronze). This may be associated with the fact that the wire mesh made of bronze, as opposed to the wire mesh made of stainless steel, contains an oxide film, and because of this it has a rougher surface and, hence, can possess lower adhesion to the polymer matrix. The best thermopervaporation characteristics are demonstrated by a PTMSP/stainless steel wire mesh membrane with the mesh size of 40 μm, for which the pervaporation separation index PSI = 46 kg m−2 h−1. A stainless steel wire mesh with the mesh size of 40 μm was used in further studies for the reinforcement of PTMSP membranes (hereinafter, a PTMSP/NS-40 membrane).

Table 4.   Comparison of the PTMSP membranes reinforced with different metal wire meshes in the TPV separation of a 1 wt % aqueous solution of butanol. Process parameters: Tsep = 60°C and Tcond = 10°C

Figure 3 presents the comparison of a dense PTMSP membrane and PTMSP/NS-40 upon varying the temperature of the feed from 40 to 80°C. The thickness of the dense PTMSP membrane was 39 μm, and it was not possible to measure the thickness of the selective layer of a PTMSP/NS-40 membrane using a micrometer because the selective layer was hidden inside the metal wire mesh. According to the obtained results, the permeate flux through a reinforced PTMSP membrane is higher throughout the entire range of temperatures when compared to a dense PTMSP membrane but, here, the values of the separation factor are lower. The maximum separation factor is achieved at a temperature of the feed of 60°C for both membranes. The separation factor was 108 for a PTMSP membrane and 83 for a PTMSP/NS-40 reinforced membrane.

Fig. 3.
figure3

Comparison of the TPV characteristics of a dense PTMSP membrane and a PTMSP/NS-40 reinforced membrane upon varying the temperature of the feed: the dependence of the (a) flux and separation factor and (b) butanol flux and pervaporation separation index (PSI) on the temperature of the feed. Process parameters: Tsep = 40–80°C and Tcond = 10°C.

The maximum of the separation factor is determined as a product of two quantities, namely, the separation factor of the phase transition and permselectivity of the membrane [27, 41]. The first quantity is determined by the liquid–vapor thermodynamic equilibrium and is proportionate to the ratio of the moving forces of the two components penetrating through the membrane, and the second quantity is determined by the transport characteristics of the membrane.

It is seen from Fig. 4 that, in the case of an increase in the temperature of the feed, the separation factor of the phase transition increases; here, the permselectivity monotonically decreases. As a result, being a product of these two quantities, the separation factor has a maximum at 60°C. This temperature of the feed is therefore optimum for the removal of butanol from aqueous media by thermopervaporation.

Fig. 4.
figure4

Dependences of the permselectivity and separation factor of the phase transition on the temperature of the feed for a PTMSP/NS-40 membrane in the case of thermopervaporation separation of a 1 wt % aqueous solution of butanol.

To estimate the thickness of the selective layer of the reinforced membranes, the values of the permeabilities of butanol and water were calculated for a PTMSP membrane throughout the entire range of temperatures under study (Fig. 5). It has been shown that the permeability of butanol through the membranes decreases from 15 × 10−5 to 9.4 × 10−5 mol m−2 h−1 kPa−1 in the case of an increase in the temperature of the feed, and the permeability of water remains constant of 2.5 × 10−5 mol m−2 h−1 kPa−1. Therefore, the permeability of water through a PTMSP membrane depends on neither the thickness of the membrane (Table 2) nor the temperature of separation (Fig. 5). From here, the effective thickness of a PTMSP membrane reinforced with a metal wire mesh can be found using the permeability of water as a constant. Based on the results of the calculations, the effective thickness of a PTMSP membrane turned out to be 30 μm. It should be noted that, in comparison with the commercial membranes based on PDMS, severalfold higher values of butanol/water permselectivities from 5.2 to 3.0 were obtained for a reinforced PTMSP membrane with a thickness of 30 μm upon varying the temperature of the feed from 40 to 80°C, respectively.

Fig. 5.
figure5

Dependence of the permeabilities of butanol and water and butanol/water permselectivities through a dense PTMSP membrane on the temperature of the feed during the TPV separation of a 1 wt % aqueous solution of butanol. Process parameters: Tsep = 40–80°C and Tcond = 10°C.

The obtained results give evidence of the fact that PTMSP-based membranes reinforced with a metal wire mesh made of stainless steel with the mesh size of 40 μm are promising for the thermopervaporation removal of butanol from fermentation mixtures. Here, the use of a reinforcing wire mesh increases the transport characteristics of PTMSP membranes, which is possibly associated with the increase in the active area of the membrane in view of the fact that the membrane duplicates the geometry of the surface of the metal wire mesh.

CONCLUSIONS

PTMSP membranes reinforced with a metal wire mesh have been obtained for the first time for the purposes of removal of butanol from aqueous media. The obtained self-maintaining membranes have been studied in the process of thermopervaporation, and their advantage over composite-type membranes (PTMSP/MFFK-1) has been shown. The influence of the material of the wire mesh (stainless steel and bronze) and mesh size of the wire mesh (30–40 μm) on the flux and separation factor has been experimentally studied in the process of thermopervaporation separation of aqueous solutions of butanol. The best pervaporation characteristics have been obtained for a PTMSP/stainless steel wire mesh membrane with a mesh size of 40 μm (PTMSP/NS-40), for which the pervaporation separation index was 46 kg m−2 h−1. It has been found that the use of a metal wire mesh as a support instead of widely applied commercial porous supports does not decrease the butanol flux and butanol/water selectivity of a PTMSP membrane in the process of TPV removal of butanol from the model fermentation broth. It has been shown that the permeability coefficient of water through PTMSP membranes does not depend on the temperature of the feed and thickness of the membranes and is 2.5 × 10−5 mol m−2 h−1 kPa−1.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is grateful for the use of the equipment in the Center for Collective Use of the Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Funding

This work was carried out within the State Program of the Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Author information

Correspondence to G. S. Golubev.

Additional information

Translated by E. Boltukhina

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Golubev, G.S., Borisov, I.L., Volkov, V.V. et al. High-Performance Reinforced PTMSP Membranes for Thermopervaporation Removal of Alcohols from Aqueous Media. Membr. Membr. Technol. 2, 45–53 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S2517751620010047

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Keywords:

  • pervaporation
  • thermopervaporation
  • butanol
  • PTMSP
  • reinforced membranes
  • metal wire mesh