Arid Ecosystems

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 143–149 | Cite as

Inevitability and Prospects of the Use of the “Green Farming” Strategy by Humanity

  • E. M. GusevEmail author


The article presents the physical substantiation of the basic laws of ecology of B. Commoner. It is shown that the evolution of dissipative structures on the Earth, which include, amongst other things, living organisms and superorganismal systems, obeys a fundamental principle–Ziegler’s principle of maximum entropy production. However, when a system approaches its stationary state due to the exhaustion of the free energy available to the dissipative structures of the planet, evolutionary changes are replaced by the relatively slow processes of the optimization of the homeostasis of the emergent structures. At this stage, Prigogine’s principle of minimum entropy production becomes the main principle. It is shown that humanity found itself in this situation at the present stage of the Holocene, facing the inevitable need for rational use of the resources available to us. A similar rationalization was already implemented by Nature at the end of the previous stage of evolution (in the absence of man) based on the ability of biota (which developed over billions of years) to regulate and stabilize the biosphere of the planet. Therefore, at the present stage of evolution, B. Commoner’s law of ecology is manifested: nature knows better. It has been demonstrated that humanity is already in the situation of the operation of this law. Over the past two decades, the so-called “green economy” has emerged—a direction in economics in which it is believed that the economy is a dependent component of its natural environment and is a part of it. In particular, it is shown that the use of “green farming” is expanding in the field of agriculture and the associated water sector (especially in the arid and semiarid regions of the planet). It is largely compensating for the growing challenges to the food and water security of the population.


basic laws of ecology dissipative structures Ziegler’s maximum entropy production principle Prigogine’s minimum entropy production principle nature-like processes green farming 



The work was carried out in the framework of theme no. 0147-2018-0001 (state registration number AAAA-A18-118022090056-0) of the State assignment of the Institute of Water Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (section “Environmental protection technologies”) and with the financial support of the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 16-17-10 039; sections “Evolution of life on Earth from the point of view of the theory of dissipative structures,” “Physical principles of the laws of ecology,” and “Principles of H. Ziegler and I. Prigogine”).


Conflict of interest. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Statement of the welfare of animals. This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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