Biology Bulletin Reviews

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 472–481 | Cite as

Molecular Markers of Caspase-Dependent and Mitochondrial Apoptosis: Role in the Development of Pathology and Cellular Senescence

  • A. S. Diatlova
  • A. V. Dudkov
  • N. S. Linkova
  • V. Kh. Khavinson


The data on the molecular mechanisms of normal and pathological apoptosis are summarized. Three phases of apoptosis are distinguished: signal, effector, and degradation. The signal phase includes the extrinsic (caspase-dependent) and extrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways. Molecular markers of extrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways play an important role in the diagnostics and treatment of immune, bronchopulmonary, excretory, and cardiovascular system pathologies, oncology, and senescence. This review considers the initiator caspases-8 and -9 and the effector caspase-3 as the molecular markers of the caspase-dependent apoptosis. The main molecular markers of the mitochondrial (or caspase-independent) apoptosis are p53, p21, and p16 proteins, which respond to DNA damage and are involved in cellular senescence, as well as chaperon prohibitin and flavoprotein apoptosis-inducing factor.


caspase-dependent apoptosis mitochondrial apoptosis cellular senescence molecular markers 



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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Diatlova
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. V. Dudkov
    • 2
  • N. S. Linkova
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. Kh. Khavinson
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and GerontologySt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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