Advances in Gerontology

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 65–71 | Cite as

Age-related changes of blood vessels in the human dermis

  • A. G. Gunin
  • V. V. Petrov
  • O. V. Vasilieva
  • N. N. Golubtsova
Article

Abstract

Blood supply, which determines the general conditions for the functioning of different organs and tissues, including skin, is a factor that is likely to affect skin aging. The available data on age-related characteristics of vascular supply in the skin are insufficient and sometimes controversial. Thus, this work was undertaken to study age-related changes in the number of blood vessels in the human dermis. Blood vessels were visualized via immunohistochemical staining specific to two endothelial markers: von Willebrand factor and CD31 antigen. It was shown that von Willebrand factor and CD31 were present in the endothelial cells of dermal blood vessels at all examined ages, from gestation week 20 to 85 years. The intensity of von Willebrand factor-specific staining was enhanced with age. The intensity of CD31-specific staining did not change with age. The number of dermal blood vessels positively stained either for von Willebrand factor or for CD31 in the dermis gradually decreased with age. The total number of fibroblasts in the dermis, as well as the portion of proliferating PCNA+ fibroblasts, also diminished with age. The decrease in the number of blood vessels was statistically associated with a decrease in the total number of fibroblasts and in the portion of proliferating fibroblasts. Hence, reduced vascular supply is a factor leading to the age-related decrease in the number of dermal fibroblasts, and clinical measures aimed at prevention and treatment of age-related changes of the skin should rely, in particular, on improving its blood supply.

Keywords

skin aging blood vessels fibroblasts von Willebrand factor CD31 PCNA 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baluk, P. and McDonald, D.M., Markers for microscopic imaging of lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 2008, vol. 1131, pp. 1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang, E.I., Loh, S.A., Ceradini, D.J., et al., Age decreases endothelial progenitor cell recruitment through decreases in hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha stabilization during ischemia, Circulation, 2007, vol. 116, pp. 2818–2829.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang, E., Yang, J., Nagavarapu, U., and Herron, G.S., Aging and survival of cutaneous microvasculature, J. Invest. Dermatol., 2002, vol. 118, pp. 752–758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chung, J.H. and Eun, H.C., Angiogenesis in skin aging and photoaging, J. Dermatol., 2007, vol. 34, pp. 593–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coolen, N.A., Schouten, K.C., Middelkoop, E., and Ulrich, M.M., Comparison between human fetal and adult skin, Arch. Dermatol. Res., 2010, vol. 302, pp. 47–55.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gunin, A.G., Bitter, A.D., Demakov, A.B., et al., Effects of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors a and γ agonists on estradiol-induced proliferation and hyperplasia formation in the mouse uterus, J. Endocrinol., 2004, vol. 182, pp. 229–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gunin, A.G., Kapitova, I.N., and Suslonova, N.V., Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on estradiolinduced proliferation and hyperplasia formation in the mouse uterus, J. Endocrinol., 2005, vol. 185, pp. 539–549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gunin, A.G., Kornilova, N.K., Vasilieva, O.V., and Petrov, V.V., Age-related changes in proliferation, the numbers of mast cells, eosinophils, CD45 positive cells in human dermis, J. Gerontol., Ser. A, 2011, vol. 66, pp. 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hillgruber, C., Steingräber, A.K., Pöppelmann, B., et al., Blocking von Willebrand factor for treatment of cutaneous inflammation, J. Invest. Dermatol., 2013. doi 10.1038/jid.2013.292Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kajiya, K., Kim, Y.K., Kinemura, Y., et al., Structural alterations of the cutaneous vasculature in aged and in photoaged human skin in vivo, J. Dermatol. Sci., 2011, vol. 61, pp. 206–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim, J.H., Jung, M., Kim, H.S., et al., Adiposederived stem cells as a new therapeutic modality for ageing skin, Exp. Dermatol., 2011, vol. 20, pp. 383–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee, J.H., Yoo, J.H., Oh, S.H., et al., Knockdown of moesin expression accelerates cellular senescence of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, Yonsei Med. J., 2010, vol. 51, pp. 438–447.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lenting, P.J., Casari, C., Christophe, O.D., and Denis, C.V., Von Willebrand factor: the old, the new, and the unknown, J. Thromb. Haemostasis, 2012, vol. 10, pp. 2428–2437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luebberding, S., Krueger, N., and Kerscher, M., Mechanical properties of human skin in vivo: a comparative evaluation in 300 men and women, Skin Res. Technol., 2013. doi 10.1111/srt.12094Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luo, G.P., Ni, B., Yang, X., and Wu, Y.Z., Von Willebrand factor: more than a regulator of hemostasis and thrombosis, Acta Haematol., 2012, vol. 128, pp. 158–169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Newman, P.J. and Newman, D.K., Signal transduction pathways mediated by PECAM-1: new roles for an old molecule in platelet and vascular cell biology, Arterioscler., Thromb., Vasc. Biol., 2003, vol. 23, pp. 953–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oh, J.H., Kim, Y.K., Jung, J.Y., et al., Changes in glycosaminoglycans and related proteoglycans in intrinsically aged human skin in vivo, Exp. Dermatol., 2011, vol. 20, pp. 454–456.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petrov, V.V., Vasilyeva, O.V., Kornilova, N.K., and Gunin, A.G., Age-related changes in mast cells and eosinophils of human dermis, Russ. J. Dev. Biol., 2013, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 139–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Petrov, V.V., Vasil’eva, O.V., Kornilova, N.K., and Gunin, A.G., Age-related changes in the number of CD45+ cells in human dermis, Adv. Gerontol., 2012, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 598–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Quatresooz, P. and Pierard, G.E., Immunohistochemical clues at aging of the skin microvascular unit, J. Cutaneous Pathol., 2009, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ryan, T., The ageing of the blood supply and the lymphatic drainage of the skin, Micron, 2004, vol. 35, pp. 161–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sawane, M. and Kajiya, K., Ultraviolet light-induced changes of lymphatic and blood vasculature in skin and their molecular mechanisms, Exp. Dermatol., 2012, vol. 21, suppl. 1, pp. 22–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seo, J.E., Kim, S., Shin, M.H., et al., Ultraviolet irradiation induces thrombospondin-1 which attenuates type I procollagen down regulation in human dermal fibroblasts, J. Dermatol. Sci., 2010, vol. 59, pp. 16–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sveikata, K., Balciuniene, I., and Tutkuviene, J., Factors influencing face aging, Stomatologija, 2011, vol. 13, pp. 113–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vereshchaka, V.V., Age-dependent state of the skin blood vessels, Fiziol. Zh. (Kiev, Ukr.), 2007, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 75–80.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vybohova, D., Mellova, Y., Adamicova, K., et al., Quantitative changes of the capillary bed in aging human skin, Histol. Histopathol., 2012, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 961–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. G. Gunin
    • 1
  • V. V. Petrov
    • 1
  • O. V. Vasilieva
    • 1
  • N. N. Golubtsova
    • 1
  1. 1.Chuvash State UniversityCheboksaryRussia

Personalised recommendations