Production of Annealed Cold-Sprayed 316L Stainless Steel Coatings for Biomedical Applications and Their in-vitro Corrosion Response

  • Burak DikiciEmail author
  • Mehmet Topuz
Physicochemical Problems of Materials Protection


316L powders were successfully deposited onto Al5052 aluminium substrates by cold spray method. Annealing was treated on the coated samples at 250–1000°C temperatures under Ar atmosphere. The in vitro performances of the coatings have been compared with using electrochemical corrosion test technique in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at body temperature (37°C). A scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used for microstructural characterization and phases identifications of the coatings, respectively. The results were shown that there are high adhesions at particle and substrate interfaces and between the particles deposited as well. Also, the increasing annealing temperature increases corrosion resistance of the cold sprayed 316L stainless steel coatings. The corrosion susceptibility of the coating annealed at 1000°C was similar that of standard 316L stainless steel implant material in Ringer’s solution. The microstructural observations revealed that corrosion starts between the inter-splat powders and continues throughout the surface not in-depth.


biomaterials cold spray 316L corrosion heat treatment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chew, K.K., Zein, S.H.S., and Ahmad, A.L., Nat. Sci. 2012, vol. 04, p. 184.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kamachimudali, U., Sridhar, T.M., and Raj, B., Sadhana 2003, vol. 28, p. 601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dikici, B., Esen, Z., Duygulu, O., and Gungor, S., in Advances in Metallic Biomaterials: Tissues, Materials and Biological Reactions, Mitsuo, N., Ed., Berlin: Springer 2015, p. 275.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Niinomi, M., Mater. Sci. Eng., A 1998, vol. 243, p. 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agrawal, C.M., JOM, 1998, vol. 50, p. 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aksakal, B., Gavgali, M., and Dikici, B., J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2010, vol. 19, p. 894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Perl, D.P., Environ. Health Perspect. 1985, vol. 63, p. 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim, H. and Knowles, J.C., J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 2005, vol. 88, p. 154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sonmez, S., Aksakal, B., and Dikici, B., J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., 2012, vol. 63, p. 510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee, I.S., Kim, H.E., and Kim, S.Y., Surf. Coat. Technol. 2000, vol. 131, p. 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karlsson, M., PhD Thesis, Uppsala: Univ. Uppsala, 2004.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shackelford, E.J.F. and Alexander, W., in Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, Shackelford, E.J.F., Ed., Boca Raton: CRC Press 2001, p. 396.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Park, J., Bioceramics: Properties, Characterizations and Applications, Iowa City, IA: Springer Science+Business Media 2008, p. 5Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Spencer, K. and Zhang, M., Surf. Coat. Technol. 2011, vol. 205, p. 5135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kwok, C.T., Wong, P.K., Cheng, F.T., and Man, H.C., Appl. Surf. Sci. 2009, vol. 255, p. 6736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li, W.Y.Y., Zhang, C., Liao, H., and Coddet, C., J. Coat. Technol. Res., 2009, vol. 6, p. 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu, G., Zeng, X., Li, G., Yao, S., and Wang, X., Mater. Lett. 2006, vol. 60, p. 674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    AL-Mangour, B., Dallala, R., Zhim, F., et al., Mater. Lett. 2013, vol. 91, p. 352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sova, A., Grigoriev, S., Okunkova, A., and Smurov, I., Surf. Coat. Technol. 2013, vol. 235, p. 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Williams, D., J. Bone Jt. Surg., 1993, vol. 76, p. 348.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    AL-Mangour, B., Mongrain, R., Irissou, E., and Yue, S., Surf. Coat. Technol. 2013, vol. 216, p. 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dikici, B., Yilmazer, H., Ozdemir, I., and Isik, M., J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2016, vol. 25, p. 704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sundararajan, G., Phani, P., Jyothirmayi, A., and Gundakaram, R., J. Mater. Sci., 2009, vol. 44, p. 2320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tait, W.S., Prog. Org. Coat. 1995, vol. 26, p. 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ataturk UniversityDept. of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Yuzuncu Yil UniversityDepartment of Mechanical EngineeringVanTurkey

Personalised recommendations