Advertisement

Contemporary Problems of Ecology

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 502–513 | Cite as

Assessment of the Functional State of Green Plantings and the Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Vegetation in Urban Green Areas for Various Purposes

  • N. S. ShikhovaEmail author
Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

This article is devoted to the ecological problem of effective urban landscaping and increasing the role of green plantings in stabilizing the environment. The paper summarizes the material on the complex bioecological assessment of functionally different urban green areas of Vladivostok. There are six types of urban plantings: ordinary plantings, squares, intraquarter gardening, old city public gardens, city parks, and intraurban recreational forests. The questions of the specificity of their species composition, conditions of growth, and the intensity of influencing anthropogenic press are considered. An almost fourfold increase of environmental stress in the following series is noted: city parks → intra-quarter gardening → intraurban recreational forests → old city public gardens → line plantings → squares. Most attention is paid to a comparative analysis of tree–shrub species and plantation accumulation of heavy metals: the main markers of technogenic pollution of the urban environment. The correlation regularities in the accumulation of heavy metals by plants in the conditions of Vladivostok urban ecosystems were found and a geochemical association of the main metal pollutants was established: Fe4.1 Zn2.0 Pb1.9 Cu1,4 Ni1.3. It is shown that the intensity of heavy-metal transformation by green plantings increases 3 times in a ranked series: intraurban recreational forest → city parks → old city public gardens → intra-quarter gardening → squares → line plantings. On the basis of the research and earlier results, a complex assessment of the functional condition of city green plantings is performed. For a practical solution, the author offers the functional status index (IFS) of plantings as an integral indicator of the ecological condition of vegetation and soils of green plantings and their capability for heavy-metal transformation in the conditions of the urbanized environment. The high functional status of ordinary plantings and squares, caused mainly by the active accumulation of heavy metals by soils and plants, is noted. This index is one and a half times lower for old city gardens and intraurban recreational forests. In conclusion, the author recommends using the results in the organization of a rational system of urban landscaping and differentiated measures of care for plantations of various functional purposes.

Keywords:

urban greenery green planting arboriflora heavy metals accumulation of heavy metals by plants functional state of green planting 

Notes

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Azgal’dov, G.G. and Raikhman, E.P., O kvalimetrii (Qualimetry), Moscow: Izd. Standartov, 1973.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Azgal’dov, G.G., Glichev, A.V., and Panov, V.P., Chto takoe kachestvo? (What is Quality?), Moscow: Ekonomika, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bukharina, I.L. and Dvoeglazova, A.A., Bioekologicheskie osobennosti travyanistykh i drevesnykh rastenii v gorodskikh nasazhdeniyakh (Bioecological Features of Herbaceous and Wood Plants in Urban Plantations), Izhevsk: Udmurt. Gos. Univ., 2010.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dergunova, A.B. and Rakhimova, KhKh., Accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of wood plants, Materialy II Vserossiiskoi konferentsii “Novye dostizheniya v khimii i khimicheskoi tekhnologii rastitel’nogo syr’ya” (Proc. II All-Russ. Conf. “New Achievements in Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Plant Raw Material”), Barnaul: Altai. Gos. Univ., 2005, book 2, pp. 713–716.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gorelova, S.V., Frontas;eva, M.V., Gorbunov, A.V., Lyapunov, S.M., Mochalova, E.G., and Okina, O.I., Biogeochemical activity of gymnosperms of introduced plants in technogenic urban ecosystems, Vestn. Balt. Fed. Univ. im. I. Kanta, 2015, no. 1, pp. 92–106.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    GOST (State Standard) 28329-89: Urban Planting, Terms and Definitions, Moscow: Izd. Standartov, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Larina, G.E. and Obukhov, A.I., Heavy metals in vegetation of lawns along motorways, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 17: Pochvoved., 1995, no. 3, pp. 41–48.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maslennikov, P.V., Skrypnik, L.N., Kurkina, M.V., Feduraev, P.V., Tyurganova, A.V., Babaitseva, E.V., and Ustinova, K.Yu., Iron accumulation in the plants of urban ecosystems of Kaliningrad, Sovrem. Pprobl. Nauki Obraz., 2016, no. 3, p. 392. http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=24507. Accessed December 17, 2018.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po provedeniyu polevykh i laboratornykh issledovanii pochv i rastenii pri kontrole zagryazneniya okruzhayushchei sredy metallami (Practical Guide for Field and Laboratory Studies of Soils and the Plants during Monitoring of Metal Pollution of Environment), Zyrin, N.G. and Malakhov, S.G., Eds., Moscow: Gidrometeoizdat, 1981.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nikiforova, E.N. and Lazukova, G.G., Geochemical evaluation of heavy metal pollution of soils and plants in urban ecosystems of Perovskii district, Moscow, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 5: Geogr., 1991, no. 3, pp. 44–53.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Novikova, O.V., Makarova, M.G., and Kosheleva, N.E., Association of trace elements in wood vegetation of Moscow city and Kito, Vestn. Ross. Univ. Druzhby Narodov, Ser.: Ekol. Bezop. Zhiznedeyatel’nosti, 2004, no. 1 (10), pp. 178–186.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Obukhov, A.I. and Lepneva, O.M., Biochemistry of heavy metals in an urban environment, Sov. Soil Sci., 1990, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 44–53.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ozelenenie gorodov. Terminy i opredeleniya (City Greening: Terms and Definitions), Moscow: Prima-Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paribok, T.A., Sazykina, N.A., Temp, G.A., Troitskaya, E.A., Leina, G.D., and Chervyakova, E.G., Metal content in leaves of urban trees, Bot. Zh., 1982, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1533–1539.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Price, W.J., Analytical Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, London: Heyden, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Promyshlennaya botanika (Industrial Botany), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roukach, A.I. and Parfenau, V.V., Assessment of the state of the environment in the parks of Belarus with the technogenic pollution, Vests. Akad. Nauk BelSSR, Ser. Biol. Nauk, 1990, no. 2, pp. 53–56.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saet, Yu.E., Geochemical evaluation of technogenic impact on environment, in Geokhimiya landshaftov i geografiya pochv (Geochemistry of Landscapes and Soil Geography), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1982, pp. 84–100.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shergina, O.V. and Mikhailova, T.A., Sostoyanie drevesnykh rastenii i pochvennogo pokrova parkovykh i lesoparkovykh zon g. Irkutska (The State of Wood Plants and Soil Cover of Park and Forest-Park Zones of Irkutsk City), Irkutsk: Inst. Geogr., Sib. Otd., Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2007.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shikhova, N.S., Monitoring of the physical state of urban soils in the context of landscaping Problems, Sib. Ekol. Zh., 2005, no. 5, pp. 899–907.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shikhova, N.S., Ecological state of soils and green plantations of Vladivostok, Ekol. Urban. Territ., 2013, no. 1, pp. 97–102.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shikhova, N.S., Complex assessment of the forests of the green zone of Vladivostok, Lesovedenie, 2015, no. 6, pp. 436–446.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shikhova, N.S. and Polyakova, E.V., Derev’ya i kustarniki v ozelenenii goroda Vladivostoka (Trees and Scrubs in the Greening of Vladivostok City), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 2006.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shmidt, V.M., Matematicheskie metody v botanike: Uchebnoe posobie (Methematical Methods in Botany: Manual), Leningrad: Leningr. Gos. Univ., 1984.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Starov, O.G., Tsoi, B.V., and Burago, A.I., Metal pollution of environment in Vladivostok, Vestn. Dal’nevost. Otd., Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1990, no. 1, pp. 71–74.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tomašvić, M., Rajšiĉ, S., Đordević, D., Tašiĉ, M., Rrstić, J., and Novacović, V., Heavy metals accumulation in tree leaves from urban areas, Environ. Chem. Lett., 2004, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tsyplenkov, V.P., Bankina, T.A., and Fedorov, A.S., Opredelenie zol’nogo sostava rastitel’nykh materialov (Determination of Ash Content of the Plant Material), Leningrad: Leningr. Gos. Univ., 1981.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ufimtseva, M.D. and Terekhina, N.V., Fitoindikatsiya ekologicheskogo sostoyaniya urbogeosistem (Phytoindication of Ecological State of Urban Geosystems), St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2005.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vel’ts, N.Yu. and Turlibekova, D.M., Accumulation of heavy metals in aboveground part of the higher plants growing in Orsk town and its vicinities, Vestn. Orenb. Gos. Univ., 2011, no. 12 (131), pp. 378–379.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vetchinnikova, L.V., Kuznetsova, T.Yu., and Titov, A.F., Specific accumulation of metals in leaves of wood plants in urban territories of the North, Tr. Karel. Nauchn. Tsentra, Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2013, no. 3, pp. 68–73.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yakubov, Kh.G., Ekologicheskii monitoring zelenykh nasazhdenii Moskvy (Ecological Monitoring of Green Plantations of Moscow), Moscow: Stagirit-N, 2005.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhad’ko, S.V. and Daineko, N.M., Accumulation of heavy metals in trees of Gomel city, Izv. Gomel’. Gos. Univ., 2003, no. 5, pp. 77–80.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia

Personalised recommendations