Advertisement

Contemporary Problems of Ecology

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 458–471 | Cite as

Taxonomic and Ecological Structure of Basidial Macromycetes Biota in Polar Deserts of the Northern Hemisphere

  • A. G. Shiryaev
  • I. V. Zmitrovich
  • O. N. Ezhov
Article
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

The results of a study of the more than century-long history of taxonomic and ecological structures of basidial macromycete biota in polar deserts of the Northern Hemisphere are discussed. Nowadays, 77 species of macromycetes are known from this region, 40 species of which are agaricoid fungi, 30 are aphyllophoroid, and 7 are gasteromycetes. The highest number of species is known for the Franz Josef Land archipelago and Severanya Zemlya. All the identified species of agaricoid and 86% of gasteroid fungi are native representatives from extremely high latitudes collected under natural conditions, whereas 80% of the aphyllophoroid fungi are alien elements. All alien species are able to exist in the region exclusively in human-modified habitats, colonizing anthropogenic woody and grass substrates, and they disappear with the depletion of these resources. Despite the existence of mycobiota at the limit of the global thermal gradient, a specific species complex of macromycetes that does not occur anywhere in the world is formed here. Symbiotrophic species (basidial lichens and mycorrhiza-formers) are the most adaptable to such extreme conditions. General features of the organization with Antarctic mycobiota are established. The possibility that new species will appear in the region is discussed in connection with the intensification of human economic activity and global climate change.

Keywords

Arctic adaptation biogeography diversity fungal ecology extreme climate Basidiomycota 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aleksandrova, V.D., Rastitel’nost’ polyarnykh pustyn’ SSSR (Vegetation of Polar Deserts of Soviet Union), Leningrad: Nauka, 1983.Google Scholar
  2. Arenz, B.E., Held, B.W., Jurgens, J.A., and Blanchette, R.A., Fungal colonization of exotic substrates in Antarctica, Fungal Diversity, 2011, vol. 49, pp. 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanchette, R.A., Held, B.W., Hellmann, L., Millman, L., and Büntgen, U., Arctic driftwood reveals unexpectedly rich fungal diversity, Fungal Ecol., 2016, vol. 23, pp. 58–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borgen, T., Elborne, S.A., and Knudsen, H., A check-list of the Greenland Basidoimycetes, Medd. Grønland, Biosci., 2006, vol. 56, pp. 37–59.Google Scholar
  5. Bridge, P., Spooner, B., and Roberts, P., List of non-lichenized fungi from the Antarctic region, Version 2.3.3, 2010. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/bas_research/data/access/fungi/Speciespublic2.html. Google Scholar
  6. CAVM Team, Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map, Scale 1: 7500000, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Map No. 1, Anchorage: US Fish Wildl. Serv., 2003.Google Scholar
  7. Dahlberg, A., Bültmann, H., Cripps, K.L., Eyjólfsdóttir, G.G., Gulden, G., Kristinsson, H., and Zhurbenko, M., Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Ch. 10: Fungi, Meltofte, H., Ed., Akureyri, 2013, pp. 356–371.Google Scholar
  8. Dearness, J., Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913–1918, Vol. 4: Botany, Part C: Fungi, Ottawa, 1923.Google Scholar
  9. Ezhov, O.N., Ershov, R.V., and Zmitrovich, I.V., Finds of basidiomycetes in Arctic deserts (Franz-Josef Land), Byull. Mosk. O-va. Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Biol., 2012, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 81–83.Google Scholar
  10. Ezhov, O.N., Gavrilo, M.V., and Zmitrovich, I.V., Fungi of the Franz-Josef Land, Tr. Kol’sk. Nauch. Tsentra, 2014, no. 4 (23), pp. 288–299.Google Scholar
  11. Ezhov, O.N., Zmitrovich, I.V., and Ershov, R.V., New data on macromycetes of Franz-Josef Land, Byull. Mosk. O-va. Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Biol., 2016, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 64–71.Google Scholar
  12. Geml, J., Timling, I., Robinson, C.H., et al., An arctic community of symbiotic fungi assembled by long-distance dispersers: phylogenetic diversity of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes in Svalbard based on soil and sporocarp DNA, J. Biogeogr., 2011, vol. 39, pp. 74–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gulden, G. and Torkelsen, A.-E., Fungi I. Basidiomycota: Agaricales, Gasteromycetales, Aphyllophorales, Exobasidiales, Dacrymycetales, and Tremellales, in A Catalogue of Svalbard Plants, Fungi, Algae and Cyanobacteria, Elvebakk, A. and Prestrud, P., Eds., Tromsø: Norw. Polar Inst., 1996, vol. 198, pp. 173–206.Google Scholar
  14. Hao, Y., Sen-yu, C., Blanchette, R.A., and Liu, X.-Z., Sistotrema brinkmannii, a psychrotolerant fungus from Antarctic soil, Mycosystema, 2010, vol. 29, pp. 864–868.Google Scholar
  15. Held, B.W. and Blanchette, R.A., Deception Island, Antarctica, harbors a diverse assemblage of wood decay fungi, Fungal Ecol., 2017, vol. 121, pp. 145–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Høiland, K., The basidiolichens of Norway and Svalbard, Graphis Scr., 1987, vol. 1, pp. 81–90.Google Scholar
  17. Karatygin, I.V., Nezdoiminogo, E.L., Novozhilov, Yu.K., and Zhurbenko, M.P., Griby Rossiiskoi Arktiki (Fungi of Russian Arctic), St. Petersburg, 1999.Google Scholar
  18. Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F., Minter, D.W., and Stalpers, J.A., Ainsworth and Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi, Wallingford: CABI, 2008, 10th ed.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knudsen, H., Fungal diversity, in The Biodiversity of Greenland: A Country Study, Technical Report No. 55, Nuuk: Greenland Inst. Nat. Resour., 2003, pp. 42–47.Google Scholar
  20. Kosonen, T. and Huhtinen, S., Wood-rotting basidiomycetes of Svalbard (Norway), Karstenia, 2008, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kotiranta, H. and Mukhin, V.A., Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycetes) of Tiksi, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Northeast Siberia, Karstenia, 2000, vol. 49, pp. 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lange, M., Arctic Gasteromycetes. The genus Bovista in Greenland and Svalbard, Environ. Res. Ser., 1987, vol. 34, pp. 261–271.Google Scholar
  23. Lange, M., Arctic Gasteromycetes II. Calvatia in Greenland, Svalbard and Iceland, Nord. J. Bot., 1990, vol. 9, pp. 525–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mattsson, J., Flyen, A.-C., and Nunez, M., Wood-decaying fungi in protected buildings and structures on Svalbard, Agarica, 2010, vol. 29, pp. 5–14.Google Scholar
  25. Nezdoiminogo, E.L., Fungi of genus Galerina Earle from the polar deserts and Arctic tundra of Soviet Union, Mikol. Fitopatol., 1982, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 208–211.Google Scholar
  26. Nezdoiminogo, E.L., Agaricoid macromycetes of the Franz-Josef Land and Northern Land, Mikol. Fitopatol., 2002, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 35–42.Google Scholar
  27. Ohenoja, E. and Vauras, J., The inocybe species found in the Canadian Arctic and West-Siberian Sub-Arctic: with ecological notes, Proc. Fifth Int. Symp. on Arcto- Alpine Mycology, Labytnangi, Russia, August 15–27, 1996, Yekaterinburg, 1998, pp. 106–121.Google Scholar
  28. Osyczka, P., Mleczko, P., Karasinski, D., and Chlebicki, A., Timber transported to Antarctica: a potential and undesirable carrier for alien fungi and insects, Biol. Invasions, 2012, vol. 14, pp. 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pegler, D.N., Spooner, B.M., and Smith, R.I.L., Higher fungi of Antarctica, the subantarctic zone and Falkland Islands, Kew Bull., 1981, vol. 35, pp. 499–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Redhead, S.A., A biogeographical overview of the Canadian mushroom flora, Can. J. Bot., 1989, vol. 67, pp. 3003–3062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ryberg, M., Larsson, E., and Molau, U., Ectomycorhizal diversity on Dryas octopetala and Salix reticulate in an alpine cliff ecosystems, Arct., Antarct. Alp. Res., 2009, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 506–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shiryaev, A.G., Clavarioid fungi of the Urals. III. The arctic zone, Mikol. Fitopatol., 2006, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 294–306.Google Scholar
  33. Shiryaev, A.G., Clavarioid fungi of the Urals. II. The nemoral zone, Karstenia, 2007, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shiryaev, A.G., Spatial structure of biota of Basidiomycota fungi in tundra zone of Taimyr, Nov. Sist. Nizshikh Rast., 2011, vol. 45, pp. 133–145.Google Scholar
  35. Shiryaev, A.G., Spatial heterogeneity of the species composition of a clavarioid fungi’s complex in the Eurasian Arctic, Contemp. Probl. Ecol., 2013, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 381–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shiryaev, A.G., Spatial differentiation of Basidiomycota fungal biota of Russia: ecological and geographic aspect, Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow, 2014.Google Scholar
  37. Shiryaev, A.G., Aphyllophorales fungi, in Rasteniya i griby polyarnykh pustyn’ severnogo polushariya (The Plants and Fungi of Polar Deserts of Northern Hemisphere), Matveeva, N.V., Ed., St. Petersburg: Marafon, 2015, pp. 226–238.Google Scholar
  38. Shiryaev, A.G., Longitudinal changes of clavarioid fungi (Basidiomycota) diversity in the tundra zone of Eurasia, Mycology, 2017, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 135–146.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Shiryaev, A.G., Dynamics of diversity of Basidiomycota fungi on modeled Eurasian transect, Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Geogr., 2018, no. 3, pp. 57–71.Google Scholar
  40. Shiryaev, A.G. and Mikhaleva, L.G., Basidiomycota fungi in tundra and forest-tundra of the Lena River delta and Novosibirsk Islands (Arctic Yakutia), Nov. Sist. Nizshikh Rast., 2013, vol. 47, pp. 155–166.Google Scholar
  41. Shiryaev, A.G. and Mukhin, V.A., Clavarioid-type fungi from Svalbard: their spatial distribution in the European High Arctic, North Am. Fungi, 2010, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 67–84.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, R.I.L., Species diversity and resource relationships of South Georgian fungi, Antarct. Sci., 1994, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 45–52.Google Scholar
  43. Yajima, Y., Tojo, M., Chen, B., and Hoshino, T., Typhula cf. subvariabilis, new snow mould in Antarctica, Mycology, 2017, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 147–152.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Zmitrovich, I.V. and Ezhov, O.N., Agaricoid fungi (Basidimycota, Agaricomycetes), in Rasteniya i griby polyarnykh pustyn’ severnogo polushariya (The Plants and Fungi of Polar Deserts of Northern Hemisphere), Matveeva, N.V., Ed., St. Petersburg: Marafon, 2015, pp. 211–225.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. G. Shiryaev
    • 1
  • I. V. Zmitrovich
    • 2
  • O. N. Ezhov
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural BranchRussian Academy of SciencesYekaterinburgRussia
  2. 2.Komarov Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Laverov Federal Research Centre for Integrated Studies of the ArcticRussian Academy of SciencesArkhangelskRussia
  4. 4.Russian Arctic National ParkArkhangelskRussia

Personalised recommendations