Contemporary Problems of Ecology

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 421–436 | Cite as

Emergence of amphibiotic insects from a floodplain lake in the Usman Forest in the Central Russian forest steppe

  • A. E. SilinaEmail author


In this article the emergence of insects from a floodplain lake of the small Usman River in the Usman Forest (Voronezh oblast) is analyzed. The abundance and frequency of occurrence of 103 species from 7 orders are estimated. Widespread and dominant species and groups (Chaoborus flavicans (Mg.) (Diptera), Cloeon inscriptum (Bgtss.), C. dipterum (L.) (Ephemeroptera), and Scirtes hemisphaericus (L.) (Coleoptera)) are defined. For the vegetative period, the abundance of emerging insects accounts for 1795.5 ± 174.0 ind/m2 of the water surface; their biomass amounts to 6756 ± 607.5 mg/m2. The extent of the removal of biomass is measured in weight and energy units. Also, the removal of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and essential fatty acids through the emergence of insects to floodplain terrestrial ecosystems are estimated.


emergence removal of biomass abundance amphibiotic insects 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alimov, A.F., Elementy teorii funktsionirovaniya vodnykh ekosistem (Elements of the Theory of Functions of Aquatic Ecosystems), St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. Berezhnoi, A.V., Sklonovaya mikrozonal’nost’ landshaftov srednerusskoi lesostepi (Slope Microzonality of the Landscapes of Central Russian Forest Steppe), Voronezh: Voronezh. Gos. Univ., 1983.Google Scholar
  3. Bogatov, V.V., Ekologiya rechnykh soobshchestv rossiiskogo Dal’nego Vostoka (Ecology of River Communities of Russian Far East), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 1994.Google Scholar
  4. Borutskii, E.V., New trap for quantitative calculation of emergence of Chironomidae, Tr. Vses. Gidrobiol. Ova, 1955, vol. 6, pp. 223–226.Google Scholar
  5. Borutskii, E.V., Emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) from continental reservoirs in various climatic belts as a factor of food abundance for fishes, Zool. Zh., 1963, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 233–246.Google Scholar
  6. Butler, M.G., Emergence phenologies of some arctic Alaskan Chironomidae, in Chironomidae: Ecology, Systematics Cytology, and Physiology, Murray, D.A., Ed., Oxford: Pergamon, 1980, pp. 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region, Part 3: Adult Males: Keys and Diagnoses, Entomol. Scand. Ser., Wiederholm, T., Ed., Lund, Sweden: Entomol. Soc., 1989, suppl. 34.Google Scholar
  8. Coler, B.G. and Kondratieff, B.C., Emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) from a delta-swamp receiving thermal effluent, Hydrobiologia, 1989, vol. 174, pp. 67–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Devies, I.J., Sampling aquatic insect emergence, in A Manual on Methods for the Assessment of Secondary Productivity in Fresh Waters, Oxford: Blackwell, 1984, chap. 6, pp. 161–227.Google Scholar
  10. Djomina, I.V., Yermokhin, M.V., and Demin, A.G., Traps for quantitative estimation of adult amphibiotic insect emergence through boundary “water-air” in lentic aquatic systems, Povolzhsk. Ekol. Zh., 2009, no. 1, pp. 65–68.Google Scholar
  11. Djomina, I.V., Yermokhin, M.V., and Polukonova, N.V., Analysis of the role of heterotropic insects in the matter transfer through the “water-air” boundary during metamorphosis in the Kholodnoe Lake (Saratov oblast, vicinity of Engels city), Mater. 3-i mezhd. nauch. konf. “Problemy izucheniya kraevykh strucktur biotsenozov” (Proc. 3 Int. Sci. Conf. “Problems of Study of the Edge Structures of Biocenosises”), Saratov: Saratov. Gos. Univ., 2012, pp. 54–57.Google Scholar
  12. Djomina, I.V., Yermokhin, M.V., and Polukonova, N.V., Structure and dynamics of matter and energy fluxes through the boundary “water-air” resulted from adult amphibiotic insect emergence in flood-plain lakes of the Volga basin, Izv. Sarat. Gos. Univ., Ser. Khim., Biol., Ekol., 2013, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 85–93.Google Scholar
  13. Drozdov, K.A., Landshaftnye parageneticheskie kompleksy srednerusskoi lesostepi (Landscape Paragenetic Complexes of the Central Russian Forest Steppe), Voronezh: Voronezh. Gos. Univ., 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Drozdov, K.A. and Khmelev, K.F., Usmanskiy pine forest, in Priroda i landshafty Podvoronezh’ya (Nature and Landscapes of Voronezh Region), Voronezh: Voronezh. Gos. Univ., 1983, pp. 77–79.Google Scholar
  15. Gladyshev, M.I., Arts, M.T., and Sushchik, N.N., Preliminary estimates of the export of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (EPA+DHA) from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems, in Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems, Arts, M.T., Brett, M.T., and Kainz, M., Eds., New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 179–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gladyshev, M.I., Kharitonov, A.Yu., Popova, O.N., Sushchik, N.N., Makhutova, O.N., and Kalacheva, G.S., Quantitative estimation of dragonfly role in transfer of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems, Dokl. Biochem. Biophys., 2011b, vol. 438, no. 1, pp. 141–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gladyshev, M.I., Sushchik, N.N., Yurchenko, Y.A., Belevich, O.E., and Kalacheva, G.S., Differences in the fatty acid compositions of blood-sucking mosquito larvae and imagoes and the water-to-land export of essential acids, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 2011a, vol. 441, no. 1, pp. 385–388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Illies, J., Emergenz 1969 im Breitenbach, Arch. Hydrobiol., 1971, suppl. 69, pp. 14–59.Google Scholar
  19. Iwakuma, T., Emergence of Chironomidae from the shallow eutrophic Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, Hydrobiologia, 1992, vol. 245, pp. 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackson, J.K. and Fisher, S.G., Secondary production, emergence, and export of aquatic insects of a Sonoran Desert stream, Ecology, 1986, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 629–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khitsova, L.N., Silina, A.E., and Melashenko, M.V., Dominant informative structure of bottom zoocenosis of floodplain reservoirs in the beaver’s habitats in Usmanskiy pine forest, Vestn. Voronezh. Gos. Univ., Ser. Biol., Khim., Farm., 2010, no. 1, pp. 127–132.Google Scholar
  22. Khitsova, L.N., Silina, A.E., and Melashenko, M.V., Taxonomic composition and trophic structure of bottom zoocenosises of floodplain reservoirs in the beaver’s habitats in Usmanskiy pine forest, Povolzh. Ekol. Zh., 2012, no. 3, pp. 336–346.Google Scholar
  23. Klaassen, H.E., An evaluation of the bottom fauna and its role as fish food in Fern Lake, PhD Thesis, Washington, DC: Univ. of Washington, 1967.Google Scholar
  24. Klishko, O.K., Avdeev, D.V., Zazulina, V.E., and Borzenko, S.V., Role of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) in biological migration of chemical elements in ecosystem of anthropogenic reservoirs, in Chteniya pamyati V.Ya. Levanidov (Vladimir Ya. Levanidov’s Biennial Memorial Meetings), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 2005, no. 3, pp. 360–367.Google Scholar
  25. Krylov, A.V., Zooplankton ravninnykh malykh rek (Zooplankton of the Plain Small Rivers), Moscow: Nauka, 2005.Google Scholar
  26. Langford, T.E. and Daffern, J.R., The emergence of insects from a British river warmed by power station coolingwater, Hydrobiologia, 1975, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 71–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lien, L., The energy budget of the brown trout population of Ovre Heimdalsvatn, Holarctic Ecol., 1978, vol. 1, pp. 279–300.Google Scholar
  28. MacKenzie, R.A., Spatial and temporal patterns in insect emergence from a Southern Maine Salt Marsh, Am. Midl. Nat., 2004, vol. 153, pp. 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Malicky, H., Atlas of European Trichoptera, Ser. Entomol., London: Dr. W. Junk, 1983, no. 24.Google Scholar
  30. Martynova, M.V., Role of some benthic organisms in removal of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds from bottom sediments: a review, Gidrobiol. Zh., 1985, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 44–48.Google Scholar
  31. Medical statistics. Scholar
  32. Menzie, C.A., The potential significance of insects in the removal of contaminants from aquatic systems, Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 1980, vol. 13, pp. 473–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Novikova, N.M., Ecotone ecosystems “water-land”: modern achievements and objectives, in Mater. 2-i Vseross. nauch. konf. s mezhd. uchastiem “Problemy izucheniya kraevykh struktur biotsenozov” (Proc. 2nd All-Russ. Sci. Conf. with Int. Participation “Problems of Study of Edge Structures of Biocenosises”), Saratov: Saratov. Gos. Univ., 2008, pp. 62–67.Google Scholar
  34. Ostroumov, S.A., Gidrobionty v somoochishchenii vody i biogennoi migratsii elementov (Role of Hydrobionts in Self- Purification of Water and Biogenic Migration of Elements), Moscow: MAKS Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  35. Pinder, L.C.V., A Key to the Adult Males of the British Chironomidae (Diptera), Ambleside, UK: Freshwater Biol. Assoc., 1978, vol. 2, no. 37, pp. 77–189.Google Scholar
  36. Poepperl, R., Benthic secondary production and biomass emerging from a northern German temperate stream, Freshwater Biol., 2000, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ramirez, M.F., Emergent aquatic insects: assemblage structure and patterns of availability in freshwater wetlands of the lower Columbia River estuary, MSc Thesis, Washington, DC: Univ. of Washington, 2008.Google Scholar
  38. Ricker, W.E., Methods for the Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters, Oxford: Blackwell, 1968.Google Scholar
  39. Rivard, A., Importance des insectes aquatiques emergents dans le regime alimentaire des consommateurs riverains en milieu desertique (Névada, É.-U.): tracage isotopique et modelisation de l’exportation de mercure, MSc Thesis, Trois-Rivieres: Univ. du Quebec, 2005.Google Scholar
  40. Rosenberg, D.M., Wiens, A.P., and Bilyj, B., Sampling emerging Chironomidae (Diptera) with submerged funnel traps in a new northern Canadian reservoir, Southern Indian Lake, Manitoba, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1980, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 927–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Savitskii, B.P., Goncharov, M.A., Zalesskaya, L.F., and Silina, A.E., Lovushka-konus dlya izucheniya vyleta razvivayushchikhsya v vode nasekomykh (instruktsiya po ustroistvu i primeneniyu) (The Conical Trap for Analysis of Emerged Aquatic Insects: Instruction), Gomel: Belorus. Inst. Inzh. Zheleznodor. Transp., 1986, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  42. Sherk, T. and Rau, G., Emergence of Chironomidae from Findley Lake and two ponds in the Cascade Mountains, USA, Neth. J. Aquat. Ecol., 1992, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shilova, A.I., Khironomidy Rybinskogo vodokhranilishcha (Chironomids in Rybinsk Reservoir), Leningrad: Nauka, 1976.Google Scholar
  44. Silina, A.E., Outflow of the matter and energy from wetland ecosystem during emergence of insects: succession aspect, Mater. III Vseross. simp. po amfibioticheskim i vodnym nasekomym “Problemy vodnoi entomologii Rossii i sovremennykh stran” (Proc. III All-Russ. Symp. on Amphibiotic and Aquatic Insects “Aquatic Entomology of Russia and Modern Countries”), Voronezh: Voronezh. Gos. Univ., 2007, pp. 303–324.Google Scholar
  45. Sokolova, N.Yu. and Antokhina, N.G., Long-term and seasonal dynamics of chironomids in Mozhaiskoe reservoir, Tr. Vses. Gidrobiol. O-va, 1980, vol. 23, pp. 234–248.Google Scholar
  46. Takemon, Y., Timing and synchronicity of the emergence of Ephemera strigata, in Mayflies and Stoneflies, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990, pp. 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zaletaev, V.S., River floodplains as the system of ecotones, in Ekositemy rechnykh poim (Ecosystems of River Floodplains), Moscow: Ross. Akad. S-kh. Nauk, 1997, pp. 7–17.Google Scholar
  48. Zapol’skaya, T.I. and Shalapenok, E.S., Energy equivalents of insect biomass in biogeocenosises of perennial herbs, Mater. VII s”ezd Vses. Ekologicheskogo obshchestva (Proc. VII Congr. of All-Union Ecological Society), Leningrad: Zool. Inst., Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1974, part 1, pp. 41–42.Google Scholar
  49. Zavyalov, N.A., Krylov, A.V., Bobrov, A.A., Ivanov, V.K., and Dgebuadze, Yu.Yu., Vliyanie rechnogo bobra na ekosistemy malykh rek (The Influence of the River Beaver on Small River Ecosystems), Moscow: Nauka, 2005.Google Scholar
  50. Zherikhin, V.V., Insects in land ecosystems, Tr. Paleontol. Inst., Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1980, vol. 178, pp. 189–224.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Belogorye State Nature ReserveBorisovka, Belgorod oblastRussia

Personalised recommendations