Polyurethanes without Isocyanates and Isocyanates without Phosgene as a New Field of Green Chemistry: Mechanism, Catalysis, and Control of Reactivity
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A brief review of studies in the kinetics, catalysis, and reaction mechanisms of new green chemistry processes for polyurethanes performed at the Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences over the past decade and a half is given. The review centers on the formation of hydroxyurethanes without the use of isocyanates on the basis of the reaction of cyclic carbonates with amines, the phosgene-free production of isocyanates by thermal decomposition of acylazides, and the prospects for using renewable plant-based raw materials for the production of novel polyurethanes.
Keywords:kinetics catalysis reaction mechanism polyurethane green chemistry of polymers cyclic carbonate renewable plant-based raw materials
This study was performed within State Assignment (topic V 45.5, 0082-2014-0015, no. AAAA-A17-117032750201-9) and with the financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 17-03-00146).
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