Altitudinal Extent of Winter Anomaly and Its Manifestation in the Total Electron Content
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Using a global, self-consistent model of the thermosphere, ionosphere, and protonosphere, as well as satellite and radar data, the spatiotemporal extent of the ionospheric winter anomaly is studied. It is shown that the morphological features (longitudinal variation and dependence on solar activity) of the manifestations of winter anomaly in the total electron content and in the electron concentration at altitudes above the maximum of the F2 layer are similar to each other. The results of simulation indicate that the high-altitude region of the manifestation of the winter anomaly is much wider than earlier reporting has found.
Keywords:simulation winter anomaly electron concentration ionospheric F2 layer external ionosphere total electron content
We thank the IGS service (ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/ gnss/products/ionex/) for the provision of TEC maps and the ISDC GFZ (https://isdc.gfz-potsdam.de) for its provision of data from the CHAMP and GRACE satellites.
The study of the winter anomaly manifestation in TEC was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant no. 18-35-20038-mol_a_ved (A.S. Yasyukevich and Yu.V. Yasyukevich). The analysis and processing of the incoherent scatter radar data and the GRACE and CHAMP satellite data, as well as the study of the vertical structure of the winter anomaly on the basis of the GSM TIP model, were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of the research project no. 18-55-52006 MNT_a (K.G. Ratovsky, V.V. Klimenko, M.V. Klimenko, and I.E. Zakharenkova). Experimental results were obtained using the unique scientific facility Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar (http://ckp-rf.ru/usu/77733/), funded by the core funding of Program FNI II.12. We used data processing techniques developed within the core funding of Program FNI II-16.