Geography and Natural Resources

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 349–357 | Cite as

Current Trends in Upper Water Layer Temperature in Coastal Zones of Baikal

  • M. N. Shimaraev
  • E. S. Troitskaya
Research in the Baikal Watershed


Based on the data from 17 meteorological stations, we have analysed the characteristics of the temperature change within the surface water layer (0.2–0.5 m) in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal. It was determined that during 1970–2016, the average temperature trend in May–September was increasing from Southern Baikal to Central and Northern Baikal due to a combination of physical– geographical features (heat from the sun, orography of the coastal mountains and underwater slopes, wind conditions, and water dynamics) in the lake basin. It was established that the low value of the trend in Southern Baikal is due to a relatively poor protection of its water area by the Primorskii Ridge (approximately 800 m high) from strong winds of the western quarter. It was found that an increased wind activity causes a more pronounced wind–wave mixing in the upper layers as well as more frequent upwellings/downwellings which also involve the waters from the deeper layers in the exchange with the upper water layers. In the Central Baikal basin, the influence of the water mass on the atmospheric circulation in the surface layer is the most obvious. Its consequence implies high atmospheric transparency and decreased cloudiness over the lake leading to an increase in incident solar radiation in the upper water layers. The high temperature trends, compared to the other parts of Baikal, correspond to the Northern Baikal basin best protected from the strong westerly winds by the Baikalskii Ridge (up to 2500 m high). Over the past two decades (1994–2016), the trend of warming of the surface water layer has decreased significantly, along with an increase in the warming rate of Central and Southern Baikal. Using data of deep–water temperature monitoring in Southern Baikal, we estimated the spatial scales of the identical response of the surface temperature and the lake water column to climate change.


climate change shore orography wind currents solar radiation warming of the surface and deep layers 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kozhov, M.M. Biology of Lake Baikal, Moscow: Nauka, 1962 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lake Baikal: Evolution and Biodiversity, O.M. Kozhova and L.R. Izmest’eva, Eds., 2nd Ed., Leiden: Backhuys Publishers, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Afanasyeva, E.L. and Shimaraev, M.N. Long–Term Changes in the Zooplankton of the Pelagic Zone of Lake Baikal in the Period of Global Warming, Proc. Int. Conf. “The State and Problems of Production Hydrobiology” Dedicated to the Centenary of Professor G.G. Vinberg (Oct. 3–7, 2005, St. Petersburg), Moscow: MKM, 2006, pp. 253–266 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Izmest’eva, L.R. Moore, M.V. Hampton, S.E. Ferwerda, C.J. Gray, D.K. Woo, K.H. Pislegina, H.V. Krashchuk, L.S. Shimaraeva, S.V. and Silow, E.A. Lake–Wide Physical and Biological Trends Associated With Warming in Lake Baikal, J. Great Lakes Res., 2016, vol. 42, issue 1, pp. 6–17. URL: (Accessed Feb. 20, 2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shimaraev, M.N. The Elements of Thermal Regime of Lake Baikal, Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1977 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Timoshkin, O.A. Moore, M.V. Kulikova, N.N. Tomberg, I.V. Malnik, V.V. Shimaraev, M.N. Troitskaya, E.S. Shirokaya, A.A. Sinyukovich, V.N. Zaitseva, E.P. Domysheva, V.M. Yamamuro, M. Poberezhnaya, A.E. and Timoshkina, E.M. Groundwater Contamination by Sewage Causes Benthic Algal Outbreaks in the Littoral Zone of Lake Baikal (East Siberia), J. Great Lakes Res., 2018, vol. 44 issue 2, pp. 230–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shimaraev, M.N. Some Characteristics of the Wind Conditions Over the Surface of Baikal During the Growing Season, Trudy Limnol. Inst. SO AN SSSR, 1964, vol. 5 (25), pp. 114–135 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vereshchagin, G.Yu., Main Features of Vertical Distribution of Water Masses on Baikal, in Collection of Papers “To Academician V.I. Vernadskii on the Occasion of His Fifty Years of Scientific and Teaching Activity”, A.E. Fersman, Ed., Moscow: AN SSSR, in 2 Vols., Vol. 2, pp. 1207–1230 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rossolimo, L.L. Temperature Regime of Lake Baikal, Trudy Baikal. Limnol. Stantsii Vost.–Sib. Filiala AN SSSR, 1957, vol. 16 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shimaraev, M.N. Kuimova, L.N. Sinyukovich, V.N. and Tsekhanovskii, V.V. Climate and Hydrological Processes in the Lake Baikal in the 20th Century, Meteorol. Gidrol., no. 3, pp. 52–58.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Troitskaya, E.S. Shimaraev, M.N. and Tsekhanovskii, V.V. Long–Term Changes in Water Temperature in Baikal, Geogr. Prir. Resur., 2003, no. 2, pp. 47–50 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    O’Reilly, C.M. Sharma, S. Gray, D.K. Hampton, S.E. Read, J.S. Rowley, R.J. Schneider, Ph., Lenters, J.D. McIntyre, P.B. Kraemer, B.M. Weyhenmeyer, G.A. Straile, D. Dong, B. Adrian, R. Allan, M.G. Anneville, O. Arvola, L. Austin, J. Bailey, J.L. Baron, J.S. Brookes, J.D. Eyto, E. de Dokulil, M.T. Hamilton, D.P. Havens, K. Hetherington, A.L. Higgins, S.N. Hook, S. Izmest’eva, L.R. Joehnk, K.D. Kangur, K. Kasprzak, P. Kumagai, M. Kuusisto, E. Leshkevich, G. Livingstone, D.M. MacIntyre, S. May, L. Melack, J.M. Mueller–Navarra, D.C. Naumenko, M. Noges, P. Noges, T. North, R.P. Plisnier, P.–D., Rigosi, A. Rimmer, A. Rogora, M. Rudstam, L.G. Rusak, J.A. Salmaso, N. Samal, N.R. Schindler, D.E. Schladow, S.G. Schmid, M. Schmidt, S.R. Silow, E. Soylu, M.E. Teubner, K. Verburg, P. Voutilainen, A. Watkinson, A. Williamson, C.E. and Zhang, G. Rapid and Highly Variable Warming of Lake Surface Waters Around the Globe, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2015, vol. 42, issue 24, pp. 10,773–10,781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Verbolov, V.I. Sokol’nikov, V.M. and Shimaraev, M.N. Hydrometeorological Regime and Thermal Balance of Lake Baikal, Moscow; Leningrad: Nauka, 1965 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grechishchev, E.K. and Mamontov, N.V. The Energy of Wind–Induces Waves for Periods, Map of Wind–Driven Waves on Lake Baikal, Irkutsk: Inst. Geol. SO AN SSSR, Vost.–Sib. Bas. Upravlenie Puti, Irk. Upravlenie Gidrometeorol. Sluzhby SM SSSR, 1959, sheet 2 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Verbolov, V.I. Pokatilova, T.N. Shimaraev, M.N. Fedorov, V.N. Granin, N.G. and Zhdanov, A.A. Formation and Dynamics of Baikal’s Waters, Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1986 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shimaraev, M.N. Troitskaya, E.S. Blinov, V.V. Ivanov, V.G. and Gnatovskii, R.Yu., Upwellings in Lake Baikal, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, vol. 442, issue 2, pp. 272–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Troitskaya, E. Blinov, V. Ivanov, V. Zhdanov, A. Gnatovsky, R. Sutyrina, E. and Shimaraev, M. Cyclonic Circulation and Upwelling in Lake Baikal, Aquat. Sci., 2015, vol. 77, issue 2, pp. 171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vereshchagin, G.Yu., Some Data on the Deep–Water Regime of Baikal in the Area of Maritui, Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Oz. Baikal, 1927, vol. 2, pp. 77–138 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shimaraev, M.N. Granin, N.G. and Zhdanov, A.A. Deep Ventilation of Lake Baikal Waters Due to Spring Thermal Bars, Limnol. Oceanogr., 1993, vol. 38, issue 5, pp. 1068–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Limnological Institute, Siberian BranchRussian Academy of SciencesIrkutskRussia

Personalised recommendations