The Ecological State of a Large City of Eastern Siberia in the Process of Urbanization
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This paper outlines the industrial potential of the city of Irkutsk as the source of pollution of the urban environment and ecological effects. A crucial role is played by the fuel and energy complex (FEC) represented by the energy industries, coal and oil–refining industries as well as by the metallurgical and agro–industrial sector. A major contribution to air pollution of the city (up to 60%) is made by motor transport. It was shown by observations and calculations of the traffic rate in different functional zones of the city that it fluctuates from high (3714 vehicles/hour) in the industrial zone to low (888 vehicles/hour) in the green zone. The social and demographic situation is characterized. The population size of the city is 623.4 thousand. The population density in different administrative districts varies from 1204 to 4558 persons per square kilometer. The birthrate is 17.5% higher than the national average. In situ assessments were made of the ecological status of soils. We determined the level of soil biochemical activity (SBA) and their alkaline acid conditions as integral and informative indicators. Ecologically, high and low SBA values cannot be considered positive because they indicate a tendency for disturbances in the metabolism regulation mechanisms for organic compounds. Content levels of heavy (HM) metals in soils are provided. The findings are presented cartographically.
Keywordsсity urbanization ecology soil cover mapping
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