Neurochemical Journal

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 311–323 | Cite as

Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Disease of the 21st Century at the Crossroads of Neurology and Psychiatry

  • V. V. FominykhEmail author
  • E. A. Frei
  • L. V. Brylev
  • N. V. Gulyaeva
Review Articles


Autoimmune encephalitis is a group of neurological diseases characterized by brain damage by autoantibodies towards extra- or intracellular structures of the nervous system that act as antigens. The combination of neurological and mental disorders, as well as the ability to identify a specific “antigen and antibody” axis, makes these diseases extremely interesting from the standpoint of “molecular psychiatry” and the creation of new experimental models of cognitive processes, clinical diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, despite active research in this direction and a large number of specific antibodies, the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis is often extremely difficult and can be made only by clinical criteria. This study provides an overview of the available data on the history of discovery and study of autoimmune encephalitis, describes the methods for searching of antibodies that exist today and the further prospects for studying this group of diseases.


autoimmune encephalitis NMDA history autoimmune diseases of the nervous system 



autoimmune thyroiditis


autoimmune encephalitis


magnetic resonance imaging


cerebrospinal fluid


a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid


AMPA receptor


contactin-associated protein 2 receptor


dipeptidyl peptidase- like protein


dopamine receptor 2


GABAa receptor


GABAb receptor


human embyronic kidney cells


Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein


metabotropic glutamate receptor 5




NMDA receptor


pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric diseases due to streptococcal infection


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. V. Fominykh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • E. A. Frei
    • 3
  • L. V. Brylev
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • N. V. Gulyaeva
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Higher Nervous activity and NeurophysiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Buyanov City Clinical HospitalMoscow Department of HealthcareMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Oslo University HospitalOsloRussia
  4. 4.Research and Clinical Centre for NeuropsychiatryMoscow Department of HealthcareMoscowRussia
  5. 5.MoscowRussia

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