Mechanical Improvements of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Composite: Covalent Functionalization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube by Epoxy Chains

  • Ehsan Moaseri
  • Behnaz Bazubandi
  • Majid Karimi
  • Morteza MaghrebiEmail author
  • Majid Baniadam


In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with epoxy chains via a microwave-assisted method. The effect of MWCNT functionalization with epoxy chains was studied on mechanical properties of MWCNT-reinforced epoxy composites. It was found that functionalization of MWCNT with epoxy chains can significantly enhance the compatibility of MWCNTs with the epoxy matrix. Consequently, remarkable improvements were achieved in mechanical properties, tensile strength and elastic modulus, of the MWCNT-reinforced epoxy composites. Fractography observation of reinforced composites was carried out to study the reinforcing effect of functionalized MWCNTs on the epoxy composites. It was found that the reinforcing effect of MWCNTs changed the fracture mood of the composite from ductile mood to a brittle fracture.



This work was supported by Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council.


  1. 1.
    Y. C. Ke and P. Stroeve, Polymer-Layered Silicate and Silica Nanocomposites (Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, 2005).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Nanni, B. L. Mayoral, F. Madau, G. Montesperelli, and T. McNally, Compos. Sci. Technol. 72 1140 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Souier, C. Maragliano, M. Stefancich, and M. Chiesa, Carbon 64, 150 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Composite Science and Technology: 2020Scientific and Technical Challenges: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Composite Science and Technology (ICCST-9), Ed. by M. Meo (Destech Publ. Inc., Sorrento, 2013).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. K. Pillai and S. S. Ray, “Epoxy-based Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites,” in Advances in Nanocomposites—Synthesis, Characterization and Industrial Applications, Ed. by B. Reddy (InTech, Rijeka, 2011).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Agarwal, S. R. Bakshi, and D. Lahiri, Carbon Nanotubes: Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Wang, Z. Liang, T. Liu, B. Wang, and C. Zhang, Nanotechnology 17, 1551 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Domun, H. Hadavinia, T. Zhang, T. Sainsbury, G. Liaghat, and S. Vahid, Nanoscale 7, 10294 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Ma, N. A. Siddiqui, G. Marom, and J. Kim, Composites, Part A 41(10), 1345 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. G. Sahoo, S. Rana, J. W. Cho, L. Li, and S. H. Chan, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 837 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, W. J. Blau, and Y. K. Gun’ko, Carbon 44, 1624 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Z. Spitalsky, D. Tasis, K. Papagelis, and C. Galiotis, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 357 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Kingston, R. Zepp, A. Andrady, D. Boverhof, R. Fehir, D. Hawkins, J. Roberts, P. Sayre, B. Shelton, Y. Sultan, V. Vejins, and W. Wohlleben, Carbon 68, 33 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. H. Gojny, J. Nastalczyk, Z. Roslaniec, and K. Schulte, Chem. Phys. Lett. 370, 820 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Paipetis and V. Kostopoulos, Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials: A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites (Springer, Netherlands, 2012).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.-C. Ma, S.-Y. Mo, B.-Z. Tang, and J.-K. Kim, Carbon 48, 1824 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Epoxy Polymers: New Materials and Innovations, Ed. by J. P. Pascault and R. J. J. Williams (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2009).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. F. Mark and J. I. Kroschwitz, Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology (Wiley, Michigan, 2003).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Moaseri, M. Maghrebi, and M. Baniadam, Mater. Des. 55, 644 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Amiri, M. Maghrebi, M. Baniadam, and S. Zeinali Heris, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 10261 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Barghamadi and H. Behmadi, Polym. Compos. 33, 1085 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Tekin, S. K. Beyaz, A. Kara, E. Şimşek, F. D. Lamari, G. Çakmak, and H. Y. Güney, Polym. Compos. 33, 1255 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Cañete-Rosales, A. Álvarez-Lueje, and S. Bollo, Sens. Actuators, B 191, 688 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. D. Vuković, A. D. Marinković, M. Čolić, M. Đ. Ristić, R. Aleksić, A. A. Perić-Grujić, and P. S. Uskoković, Chem. Eng. J. 157, 238 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    E.-S. Park, Preparation, “Characterization and Applicability of Covalently Functionalized MWNT,” in Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, Ed. by S. Suzuki (IntechOpen, Rijeka, 2013).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. G. González, J. Baselga, and J. C. Cabanelas, “Applications of FTIR on Epoxy Resins—Identification, Monitoring the Curing Process, Phase Separation and Water Uptake,” in Infrared Spectroscopy—Materials Science, Engineering and Technology, Ed. by T. M. Theophanides (InTech, Rijeka, 2012).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. Domun, H. Hadavinia, T. Zhang, T. Sainsbury, G. H. Liaghat, and S. Vahid, Nanoscale 7, 10294 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Damian, A. M. Pandele, and H. Iovu, Sci. Bull. – Univ. “Politeh.” Bucharest, Ser. B 72, 163 (2010).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Qian, E. S. Greenhalgh, M. S. P. Shaffer, and A. Bismarck, J. Mater. Chem. 20, 4751 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E. L. Camponeschi, PhD Thesis (Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta, 2007).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    O. Meincke, D. Kaempfer, H. Weickmann, C. Friedrich, M. Vathauer, and H. Warth, Polymer 45, 739 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Zhao, K. Wang, H. Yang, Q. Zhang, R. Du, and Q. Fu, Polymer 48, 5688 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehsan Moaseri
    • 1
  • Behnaz Bazubandi
    • 1
  • Majid Karimi
    • 1
  • Morteza Maghrebi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Majid Baniadam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations