Advertisement

Geology of Ore Deposits

, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 162–184 | Cite as

Impurity Elements in Quartz from Gold Deposits of the Darasun Ore Field (Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia): Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Data

  • L. T. RakovEmail author
  • V. Yu. Prokofiev
  • L. D. Zorina
Article

Abstract

The distribution of substitutional Al, Ti, and Ge impurities in quartz samples from the Darasun, Teremkinskoe, and Talatui gold deposits, located in the Darasun ore field, were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance. The relationship between the isomorphous substitution and dynamic recrystallization of quartz was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that analysis of the plots of interdependence between the concentrations of various substitutional impurities in quartz (isogens) can detect development trends of isomorphous substitution. Two isomorphous substitution stages were recognized, one associated with quartz crystallization, and the other, with its subsequent dynamic recrystallization. The first stage is characterized by incorporation of Al impurity into the quartz crystal lattice, and the second, by incorporation Ti impurity. A Ge impurity is a catalyst for isomorphous substitution, and its concentrations vary widely. It is noted that the second stage plays a decisive role, because it accounts for the incorporation of the larger part of substitutional impurities. This process is facilitated by the dynamic recrystallization of quartz. Four genetic quartz groups, described by individual isogens, have been recognized in the Darasun ore field. Two of them correspond to quartz crystallized directly from a magmatogenic fluid or redeposited with the melt’s participation, and the other two groups, to quartz crystallized from an altered fluid. It was found that substitutional Al concentrations are retained in quartz after redeposition, whereas substitutional Ti concentrations decrease dramatically Mineral formation processes at each gold deposit are reviewed. Two types of temperature zoning, normal and reverse, have been recognized at the Darasun deposit. Each is characterized by an individual genetic quartz group and the degree of closedness of the mineral formation system. The genetically similar magmatogenic quartz samples found at the Darasun and Talatui deposits indicate the uniformity of the mineralization process in the Darasun ore field. The established trends of isomorphous substitution in quartz are useful in studies of the ore formation histories of gold and other ore deposits.

Keywords

Darasun Teremkinskoe and Talatui deposits of the Darasun ore field mineral formation auriferous quartz dynamic recrystallization substitutional impurities genetic analysis isogens isomorphous substitution stages quartz redeposition temperature zoning EPR method scanning electron microscopy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Dolomanova, E.I., Bershov, L.V., and Gasoyan, M.S., Isomorphic trace elements in gangue quartz of tin deposits of Transbaikalia and their genetic significance, Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR, 1972, no. 6, pp. 65–74.Google Scholar
  2. Getmanskaya, T.I. and Rakov, L.T., Paramagnetic center distributions in quartzes from greisen tungsten deposits, Geochem. Int., 1998, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 474–476.Google Scholar
  3. Hirth, G. and Tullis, J., Dislocation creep regimes in quartz aggregates, J. Struct. Geol., 1992, vol. 21, p. 145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Korzhinskii, D. S., Teoriya metasomaticheskoi zonal’nosti (Theory of Metasomatic Zoning), Moscow: Nauka, 1969.Google Scholar
  5. Koshchug, D.G., Structural Admixtures and Typomorphism of Quartz: EPS Spectroscopic Data, Doctoral (Geol.-Min.) Dissertation, Moscow: MGU, 1998.Google Scholar
  6. Kurepin, V.A., Ti-bearing quartz as high-temperature geothermometer, Mineral. Zh, 1992, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 30–39.Google Scholar
  7. Ostapenko, G.T., Tarashchan, A.N., and Mitsyuk, B.M., Rutile-quartz geothermobarometer, Geochem. Int., 2007, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 506–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Passchier, C.W. and Trouw, R.A.J., Microtectonics, Berlin. Heidelberg. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. Petrovskaya, N.V., Reprecipitation of gold and quartz during formation of gold deposits, Izv. Tomsk. Politekhn. Univ., Vol. 239. Vopr. Geol. Mestorozhd. Zolota, 2012, pp. 133–139.Google Scholar
  10. Prokofev, V.Yu. and Zorina, L.D., Fluid regime of the Darasun ore-magmatic system (Eastern Transbaikalia): fluid inclusion data, Geol. Geofiz., 1996, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 50–61.Google Scholar
  11. Prokofev, V.Yu., Bortnikov, N.S., Zorina, L.D., Kulikova, Z.I., Matel’, N.L., Kolpakova, N.N., and Il’ina, G.F., Genetic features of the darasun gold-sulfide deposit (Eastern Transbaikal Region), Geol. Ore Deposits, 2000, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 474–495.Google Scholar
  12. Prokof’ev, V.Yu., Zorina, L.D., Baksheev, I.A., Plotinskaya, O.Yu., Kudryavtseva, O.E., and Ishkov, Yu.M., Minerals and formation conditions of ores of the Teremkin gold deposit (Eastern Transbaikal Region, Russia), Geol. Ore Deposits, 2004, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 385–406.Google Scholar
  13. Prokofev, V.Yu., Zorina, L.D., Kovalenker, V.A., Akinfiev, N.N., Baksheev, I.A., Krasnov, A.N., Yurgenson, G.A., and Trubkin, N.V., Composition, formation conditions, and genesis of the Talatui Gold Deposit, the Eastern Transbaikal region, Russia, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2007, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 31–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Prokof’ev, V.Yu., Bortnikov, N.S., Volkov, A.V., Baksheev, I.A., and Zorina, L.D., Disseminated ores of the Darasun gold deposit (Eastern Transbaikalia) and their Genesis, Dokl. Earth Sci, 2008, vol. 422, no. 2, pp. 1025–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Prokofiev, V.Yu., Bortnikov, N.S., Kovalenker, V.A., et al., Vertical mineralogical-geochemical zoning of Mesozoic Transbaikalia fluid-magmatic gold systems, Large Igneous Provinces of Asia. Mantle Plumes and Metallogeny. Abstracts of the international symposium, Novosibirsk, 2009, p. 251.Google Scholar
  16. Prokofiev, V.Yu., Garofalo, P.S., Bortnikov, N.S., Kovalenker, V.A., Zorina, L.D., Grichuk, D.V., and Selektor, S.L., Fluid inclusion constraints on the genesis of gold in the Darasun district (eastern Transbaikalia), Russia, Econ. Geol., 2010, vol. 105, no. 2, p. 395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rakov, L.T., Germanium as catalyst of isomorphism in quartz, Mineralogicheskie perspektivy: Mater. mezhdunar. mineral. seminara (Mineralogical Prospects: Proceedings of International Mineralohical Seminar), Syktyvkar: IG Komi NTs UrO RAN, 2011, pp. 138–139.Google Scholar
  18. Rakov, L.T., Natural diffusion of structural admixtures in quartz of sedimentary rocks, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1992, vol. 323, no. 4, pp. 756–760.Google Scholar
  19. Rakov, L.T., Accumulation of low-dose paramagnetic centers in quartz, Geochem. Int., 1998, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 367–369.Google Scholar
  20. Rakov, L.T., Mechanisms of isomorphic substitution in quartz, Geochem. Int., 2006, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1004–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rakov, L.T., Scientific Principles of Application of Structural Defects in quartz as Indicator of Mineral Formation, Doctoral (Geol.-Min.) Dissertation, Moscow: VIMS, 2007.Google Scholar
  22. Rakov, L.T., Role of germanium in isomorphic substitutions in quartz, Geochem. Int., 2015, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rakov, L.T. and Krylova, G.I., Role of structural impurities in polymorphic transformations in quartz, Geochem. Int., 2001, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1172–1178.Google Scholar
  24. Rakov, L.T. and Shuriga, T.N., The structural dynamic state of quartz as a criterion of its genesis, Geochem. Int., 2009, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1021–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rakov, L.T., Kuvshinova, K.A., Moiseev, B.M., Pleskova, M.A., and Kandinov, M.N., Typomorphic significance of similar Ti centers in quartz, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1989, vol. 305, no. 1, pp. 192–194.Google Scholar
  26. Rakov, L.T., Milovidova, N.D., and Moiseev, B.M., Ekspressnoe opredelenie metodom EPR soderzhanii izomorfnykh primesei v obraztsakh kvartsevogo syr’ya (Express Determination of Contents of Isomorphic Admixtures in Samples of Quartz Raw Material), Moscow: VIMS, 1991.Google Scholar
  27. Rakov, L.T., Milovidova, N.D., Moiseev, B.M., and Ogurtsov, V.G., New method of estimation of quality of quartz raw material, Razvedka Okhrana Nedr, 1993, no. 7, pp. 36–38.Google Scholar
  28. Rakov, L.T., Dubinchuk, V.T., and Portnov, A.M., Initiation of isomorphism in quartz, Fedorovskaya sessiya 2010: Mater. XIs”ezda RMO (Fedorov 2010 Session. Proceedings of 11th Conference of the Russian Mineral. O-va), Sankt-Petersburg: SPGGI (TU). 2010, pp. 59–61.Google Scholar
  29. Rakov, L.T., Shchiptsov, V.V., Dubinchuk, V.T., and Skamnitskaya, L.S., Quartz raw material of the Karelia-Kola region: nature and genetic significance of submicroscopic structural heterogeneities in quartz, Tr. Kar. Nauchn. Ts., 2015, no. 7, pp. 164–180.Google Scholar
  30. Rakov, L.T., Tkachev, A.V., and Sakhnov, A.A., Genetic analysis of quartz from pegmatites of the Mama-Chuya mica belt based on distribuition of isomorphic impurities, Russia, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2013, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shcherbakova, M.Ya., Sotnikov, V.I., Proskuryakov, A.A., Mashkovtsev, R.I., and Solntsev, V.P., Application of EPR spectra of quartz in estimating ore potential: evidence from gold and copper-molybdenum) mineralization, Geol. Rud. Mestorozhd., 1976, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 63–69.Google Scholar
  32. Shuriga, T.N., Rakov, L.T., and Rogacheva, O.Yu., Influence of genesis of deposits on the distribution of isomorphic impurities and nano-size structures in quartz, Mineralogicheskaya interventsiya v mikro- i nanomir: Mater. mezhdunar. mineral. Seminara (Mineralogical Intervention in Micro and Nano-world: Proceedings of International Mineralogical Seminar), Syktyvkar: IG Komi NTs UrO RAN, 2009, pp. 270–272.Google Scholar
  33. Stipp, M., Stunitz, H., Heilbronner, R., and Schmid, S.M., The eastern Tonale fault zone: a “natural laboratory” for crystal plastic deformation of quartz over a temperature range from 250 to 700oC, J. Struct. Geol., 2002, vol. 24, p. 1861–1884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Urai, J.L., Means, W.D., and Lister, G.S., Dynamic recrystallization of minerals, Mineral and Rock Deformation: Laboratory Studies, Hobbs, B.E. and Heard, H.C., Eds., Geophys. Monogr, 1986, vol. 36, pp. 161–199.Google Scholar
  35. Wertz, D. and Bolton, D., Electron Spin Resonance, Elementary Theory, and Practical Applications, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972.Google Scholar
  36. Weil, J.A., A review of electron spin spectroscopy and its application to the study of paramagnetic defects in crystalline quartz, Phys. Chem. Mineral., 1984, no. 10, p. 149.Google Scholar
  37. Yurgenson, G.A., Tipomorfizm i rudonosnost’ zhil’nogo kvartsa (Typomorphism and Ore potential of Gangue Quartz), Moscow Nedra, 1984.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. T. Rakov
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. Yu. Prokofiev
    • 1
  • L. D. Zorina
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and GeochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian BranchRussian Academy of SciencesIrkutskRussia

Personalised recommendations