Platinoids in the Kaalamo Differentiated Massif in the Northern Ladoga Region, Karelia, Russia
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The Kaalamo massif is located in the Northern Ladoga region, Karelia, on the extension of the Kotalahti Belt of Ni-bearing ultramafic intrusions in Finland. The massif, 1.89 Ga in age, is differentiated from pyroxenite to diorite. Nickel–copper sulfide mineralization with platinoids is related to the pyroxenite phase. The ore consists of two mineral types: (i) pentlandite–chalcopyrite–pyrrhotite and (ii) chalcopyrite, both enriched in PGE. Pd and Pt bismuthotellurides, as well as Pd and Pt tellurobismuthides, are represented by the following mineral species: kotulskite, sobolevskite, merenskyite, michenerite, moncheite, keithconnite, telluropalladinite; Pt and Pd sulfides comprise vysotskite, cooperite, braggite, palladium pentlandite, and some other rare phases. High-palladium minerals are contained in pentlandite–chalcopyrite–pyrrhotite ore. Native gold intergrown with kotulskite commonly contains microinclusions (1–3 μm) of Pd stannides: paolovite and atokite. Ore with 20–60% copper sulfides (0.2–6.0% Cu) contains 5.1–6.6 gpt PGE and up to 0.13–2.3 gpt Au. Pd minerals, arsenides and sulfoarsenides of Pt, Rh, Ir, Os, and Ru are identified as well. These are sperrylite, ruthenium platarsite, hollingworthite, and irarsite; silvery gold and paolovite have also been noted. All these minerals have been revealed in the massif for the first time. The paper also presents data on the compositions of 25 PGE minerals (PGM) from Kaalamo ores.
Keywordsplatinum-group minerals (PGM) Kaalamo differentiated massif Northern Ladoga region Karelia
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