Advertisement

Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 451–470 | Cite as

Localization Zones of Ancient and Historical Earthquakes in Gorny Altai

  • E. V. DeevEmail author
Article
  • 50 Downloads

Abstract

The conducted paleoseismological and archaeoseismological studies reveal three zones of concentration of the ancient and historical earthquakes in Gorny Altai which are related to the Kurai Fault zone, Katun, and South Terekta faults. The surface ruptures are detected within the Kurai Fault zone, which were formed in the epicentral zones of the paleoearthquakes that occurred 6500, 5800, 3200, and 1300 years ago and had magnitudes Mw = 6.7–7.6. The recurrence period of the paleoearthquakes is 700 to 2600 years. The detected secondary seismogenic deformations indicate that an epicentral zone of the paleoearthquake with an age of less than 12.5 ka (Mw = 7.2–7.6, intensity I = 10–11), the traces of earthquakes and their clusters with M ≥ 5–5.5 and I ≥ 6–7, which occurred about 150 and 90 ka ago, in the intervals of 38–19 ka ago (with a recurrence period of about 2 ka), and 19–12.5 ka ago are related to the southern part of the Katun Fault. The earthquake of I ≥ 5–6 which damaged the constructions of the Chultukov Log 1 burial mound in the period from IV century B.C. to the beginning of I century A.D. is associated with the northern part of the Katun Fault. In the zone of the South Terekhta Fault, the seismogenic displacements that occurred in VII–VIII centuries A.D. (Mw = 7.4–7.7, I = 9–11) and about 16 ka ago (M ≥ 7, I = 9–10) are revealed. The latter triggered the formation of a landslide-dammed lake which was destroyed by the earthquake about 6 ka ago (M ≥ 7, I = 9–10). Secondary paleoseismic deformations of the ancient earthquakes (M ≥ 5–5.5, I ≥ 6–7) are recorded in the sediments of the Uimon Basin with an age of 100–90 ka and about 77 ka. These results should be taken into account in designing a gas pipeline in the People’s Republic of China, building infrastructure for tourism, and elaborating the seismic zoning maps for the territory of the Russian Federation.

Keywords:

paleoearthquakes primary and secondary paleoseismic deformations paleoseismology archaeoseismology Kurai Fault zone South Terekhta Fault Katun Fault Gorny Altai 

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Doct. Sci. (Geol.-Mineral.) A.M. Korzhenkov and Cand. Sci. (Geol.-Mineral.) A.N. Ovsyuchenko for carefully reading the manuscript and for their valuable comments.

FUNDING

The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 18-05-00389-а).

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Adija, M., Ankhtsetse, D., Baasanba, T., Baya, G., Bayarsaikhan, C., Erdenezul, D., Mungunsuren, D., Munkhsaikhan, A., Munkhuu, D., Narantsetseg, R., Odonbaatar, C., Selenge, L., Tsembel, B., Ulziibat, M., and Urtnasan, K.H., One Century of Seismicity in Mongolia (1900–2000), Ulaanbaatar: RCAG- DASE, 2003Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ambraseys, N.N., Engineering seismology, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 1998, vol. 17, pp. 1–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bezerra, F.H.R., Fonseca, V.P., Vita-Finzi, C., Lima-Filho, F.P., and Saadi, A., Liquefaction-induced structures in Quaternary alluvial gravels and gravels sediments, NE Brazil, Eng. Geol., 2005, vol. 76, pp. 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bogachkin, B.M., Istoriya tektonicheskogo razvitiya Gornogo Altaya v kainozoe (Cenozoic Tectonic History of Gorny Altai), Moscow: Nauka, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bondarenko, P.M., Devyatkin, E.V., and Liskun, I.G., Data on neotectonics and stratigraphy of Cenozoic deposits of the Ak-Tash region of the Kurai neotectonic zone, Gorny Altai, Problemy geomorfologii i neotektoniki orogennykh oblastei Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka. Materialy Vsesoyuznogo soveshchaniya po geomorfologii i neotektonike Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka (Problems of Geomorphology and Neotectonics of the Orogenic Regions of Siberia and the Far East, Proc. All-Union Conference on Geomorphology and Neotectonics of Siberia and the Far East), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1968, vol. 2, pp. 65–73.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buslov, M.M., Watanabe, T., Saphonova, I.Y., Iwata, K., Travin, A., and Akiyama, M., A Vendian-Cambrian island arc system of the Siberian continent in Gorny Altai (Russia, Central Asia), Gondwana Res., 2002, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 781–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buslov, M.M., Watanabe, T., Fujiwara, Y., Iwata, K., Smirnova, L.V., Safonova, I.Y., Semakov, N.N., and Kiryanova, A.P., Late Paleozoic faults of the Altai region, Central Asia: tectonic pattern and model of formation, J. Asian Earth Sci., 2004, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 655–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Butvilovskii, V.V., Paleogeografiya poslednego oledeneniya i golotsena Altaya: sobytiino-katastroficheskaya model’ (Paleogeography of the Last Glaciation and the Holocene of Altai: Event–Catastrophic Model), Tomsk: Tomskii univ., 1993.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Calais, E., Vergnolle, M., San’kov, V., Lukhnev, A., Miroshnitchenko, A., Amarjargal, S., and Deverchere, J., GPS measurements of crustal deformation in the Baikal-Mongolia area (1994–2002): implications for current kinematics of Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 2003, vol. 108, B10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carling, P.A., Morphology, sedimentology and palaeohydraulic significance of large gravel dunes, Altai Mountains, Siberia, Sedimentology, 1996, vol. 43, pp. 647–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carling, P.A., Freshwater megaflood sedimentation: what can we learn about generic processes?, Earth Sci. Rev., 2013, vol. 125, pp. 87–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carling, P.A., Kirkbride, A.D., Parnachov, S., Borodavko, P.S., and Berger, G.W., Late Quaternary catastrophic flooding in the Altai Mountains of south-central Siberia: a synoptic overview and introduction to flood deposit sedimentology, in Flood and Megaflood Processes and Deposits: Recent and Ancient Examples, Martini, I.P., Baker, V.R., and Garzon, G., Eds., Special Publication 32 of the IAS, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002, pp. 17–35.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chikov, B.M., Zinoviev, S.V., and Deyev, E.V., Mesozoic and Cenozoic collisional structures of the southern Great Altai, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2008, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chikov, B.M., Zinoviev, S.V., and Deyev, E.V., Post-Late Paleozoic collisional framework of southern Great Altai, Acta Geol. Sin. (Eng. Ed.), 2012, vol. 86, pp. 1093–1104.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cunningham, D., Structural and topographic characteristics of restraining bend mountain ranges of the Altai, Gobi Altai and easternmost Tien Shan, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub., 2007, vol. 290, pp. 219–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deev, E.V. and Borodovskii, A.P., In the wake of ancient earthquakes in Gorny Altai, Priroda (Moscow, Russ. Fed.), 2017, no. 2, pp. 86–88.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deev, E.V., Vysotskii, E.M., Novikov, I.S., and Mistryukov, A.A., Structural-geomorphological analysis of the Teletskoe Lake region, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 1995, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 122–131.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Deev, E.V., Gibsher, A.S., Chigvintseva, L.A., Frolova, T.V., and Ryabinin, A.B., Seismites in Pleistocene sediments of Gornyi Altai, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2005, vol. 403, no. 5, pp. 681–686.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Deev, E.V., Zolnikov, I.D., and Gus’kov, S.A., Seismites in Quaternary sediments of southeastern Altai, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2009, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 546–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deev, E.V., Zolnikov, I.D., Borodovsky, A.P., and Goltsova, S.V., Neotectonics and paleoseismicity of the lower Katun’ valley (Gorny Altai), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2012a, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 883–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deev, E.V., Nevedrova, N.N., Zol’nikov, I.D., Rusanov, G.G., and Ponomarev, P.V., Geoelectrical studies of the Chuya basin sedimentary fill (Gorny Altai), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2012b, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 92–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Deev, E.V., Nevedrova, N.N., Rusanov, G.G., Sanchaa, A.M., Babushkin, S.M., Krechetov, D.V., Eltsov, I.N., and Zolnikov, I.D., New data on structure of Uimon intermountain basin (Gorny Altai), Geol. Miner.-Syr’evye Resursy Sibiri, 2012c, no. 1, pp. 15–23.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Deev, E.V., Zolnikov, I.D., Goltsova, S.V., Rusanov, G.G., and Emanov, A.A., Traces of paleoearthquakes in the Quaternary deposits of intermontane basins in central Gorny Altai, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2013a, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 312–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deev, E.V., Zol’nikov, I.D., Gol’tsova, S.V., Rusanov, G.G., Emanov, A.A., and Gus’kov, S.A., Evidence of ancient earthquakes in the alluvial deposits of Katun River (Uimon depression, Gorny Altai), Dokl. Earth Sci., 2013b, vol. 449, no. 2, pp. 386–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Deev, E.V., Zolnikov, I.D., and Lobova, E.Yu., Late Pleistocene-Holocene coseismic deformations in the Malyi Yaloman River Valley (Gorny Altai), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2015, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 1256–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deev, E.V., Turova, I.V., Zol'nikov, I.D., Kotler, S.A., Borodovskiy, A.P., and Lobova E.Yu., Large paleoearthquakes in the Katun Fault zone (Gorny Altai), Chetvertaya tektonofizicheskaya konferentsiya v IFZ RAN. Tektonofizika i aktual’nye voprosy nauk o Zemle: Materialy dokladov vserossiiskoi konferentsii v 2-kh tomakh (Tectonophysics and Topical Problems in Geosciences, Proc. 4th All-Russian Tectonophysical Conference at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPE RAS) in 2 volumes), Moscow: IPE RAS, 2016, vol. 1, pp. 410–418.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deev, E.V., Turova, I.V., Borodovskiy, A.P., Zolnikov, I.D., and Oleszczak, L., Unknown large ancient earthquakes along the Kurai fault zone (Gorny Altai): new results of palaeoseismological and archaeoseismological studies, Int. Geol. Rev., 2017, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 293–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Deev, E.V., Zol’nikov, I.D., Turova, I.V., Rusanov, G.G., Ryapolova, Yu.M., Nevedrova, N.N., and Kotler, S.A., Paleoearthquakes in the Uimon basin (Gorny Altai), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2018, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 351–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Deev, E., Turova, I., Borodovskiy, A., Zolnikov, I., Pozdnyakova, N., and Molodkov, A., Large earthquakes in the Katun Fault zone (Gorny Altai): paleoseismological and archaeoseismological evidence, Quat. Sci. Rev., 2019, vol. 203, pp. 68–89.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Delvaux, D., Theunissen, K., Van-der-Meyer, R., and Berzin, N.A., Dynamics and paleostress of the Cenozoic Kurai-Chuya Depression of Gorny Altai (south Siberia): tectonic and climatic control, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 1995, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 26–45.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Delvaux, D., Cloetingh, S., Beekman, F., Sokoutis, D., Burov, E., Buslov, M.M., and Abdrakhmatov, K.E., Basin evolution in a folding lithosphere: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan belts in Central Asia, Tectonophysics, 2013, vol. 602, pp. 194–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Devyatkin, E.V., Kainozoiskie otlozheniya i neotektonika Yugo-Vostochnogo Altaya (Cenozoic Deposits and Neotectonics of Southeast Altai), Moscow: Nauka, 1965.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dobretsov, N.L., Buslov, M.M., Delvaux, D., Berzin, N.A., and Ermikov, V.D., Meso- and Cenozoic tectonics of the Central Asian mountain belt: effects of lithospheric plate interaction and mantle plumes, Int. Geol. Rev., 1996, vol. 38, pp. 430–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Efimtsev, N.A., On the structure and origin of Quaternary deposits of the Chuya and Katun rivers in Gorny Altai, Byull. Kom. Izuch. Chetvertichn. Perioda, Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1964, no. 29, pp. 115–131.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fedak, S.I., Turkin, Yu.A., Gusev, A.I., Shokal’skii, S.P., Rusanov, G.G., Borisov, B.A., Belyaev, G.M., and Leont’eva, E.M., Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Masshtab 1 : 1  000  000 (tret’e pokolenie). Seriya Altae-Sayanskaya. List M-45–Gorno–Altaisk (The 1 : 1  000  000 State Geological Map of the Russian Federation (Third Generation), Altai–Sayan Series. Sheet M-45: Gorno-Altaisk. Explanatory note), Moscow: Kartograficheskaya fabrika VSEGEI, 2011.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Filina, A.G., Podkorytova, V.G., and Podlipskaya, L.A., The Tyungur earthquake of September 18, 1997 with Mc = 4.4, I 0 = 6 (Gorny Altai), in Zemletryaseniya Severnoi Evrazii v 1997 g. (Earthquakes in North Eurasia in 1997), Obninsk: GS RAN, 2003, pp. 236–239.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Galli, P., New empirical relationships between magnitude and distance for liquefaction, Tectonophysics, 2000, vol. 324, pp. 169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Glorie, S., De Grave, J., Buslov, M.M., Zhimulev, F.I., Elburg, M.A., and Van Den, Haute, P., Structural control on Meso–Cenozoic tectonic reactivation and denudation in the Siberian Altai: insights from multi-method thermochronometry, Tectonophysics, 2012, vol. 544–545, pp. 75–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gol’din, S.V., Seleznev, V.S., Emanov, A.F., Filina, A.G., Emanov, A.A., Novikov, I.S., Vysotskii, E.M., Fateev, A.V., Kolesnikov, Yu.I., Podkorytova, V.G., Leskova, E.V., and Yarygina, M.A., The Chuya earthquake and its aftershocks, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2004, vol. 395, no. 3, pp. 394–396.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kal’met’eva, Z.A., Mikolaichuk, A.V., Moldobekov, B.D., Meleshko, A.V., Zhantaev, M.M., and Zubovich, A.V., Atlas Zemletryasenii Kyrgyzstana (Atlas of Kyrgyzstan Earthquakes), Bishkek: TsAIIZ, 2009.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kondorskaya, N.V. and Shebalin, N.V., Eds., Novyi katalog sil’nykh zemletryasenii na territorii SSSR s drevneishikh vremen do 1975 g. (New Catalog of Strong Earthquakes on the Territory of the USSR From Ancient Times to 1975), Moscow: Nauka, 1977.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kuribayashi, E. and Tatsuoka, F., Brief review of liquefaction during earthquakes in Japan, Soils Found., 1975, vol. 15, pp. 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Le Pichon, X., Fournier, M., and Jolivet, L., Kinematics, topography, shortening and extrusion in the India–Eurasia collision, Tectonics, 1992, vol. 11, pp. 1085–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levitskii, E.S., Bazhenova, S.N., and Bortsova, A.V., Geologicheskaya karta SSSR m-ba 1 : 200 000. Seriya Gorno-Altaiskaya. List M-45-XIV. Ob”yasnitel’naya zapiska (The 1 : 200 000 Geological Map of the USSR, Gorny Altai Series, Sheet M-45-XIV, Explanatory Note), Moscow: Nedra, 1964.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lukina, N.V., Active faults and seismicity in Altai, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 1996, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 68–71.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lunina, O.V. and Gladkov, A.S., Seismically induced clastic dikes as a potential approach for the estimation of the lower-bound magnitude/intensity of paleoearthquakes, Eng. Geol., 2015, vol. 195, pp. 206–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lunina, O.V., Andreev, A.V., and Gladkov, A.A., Geologic hazards associated with seismogenic faulting in southern Siberia and Mongolia: forms and location patterns, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2014, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1028–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Molnar, P. and Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: effects of a continental collision, Science, 1975, vol. 189, no. 4201, pp. 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nevedrova, N.N., Deev, E.V., and Sanchaa, A.M., Deep structure and margins of the Kurai Basin (Gorny Altai), from controlled-source resistivity data, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2014, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Novikov, I.S., Morfotektonika Altaya (Morphotectonics of Altai), Novosibirsk: SO RAN, Geo, 2004.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Novikov, I.S., Emanov, A.A., Leskova, E.V., Batalev, V.Yu., Rybin, A.K., and Bataleva, E.A., The system of neotectonic faults in southeastern Altai: orientations and geometry of motion, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2008, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 859–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Papathanassiou, G., Pavlides, S., Christaras, B., and Pitilakis, K., Liquefaction case histories and empirical relations of earthquake magnitude versus distance from the boarder Aegean region, J. Geodyn., 2005, vol. 40, pp. 257–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Parnachev, S.V., Geologiya vysokikh altaiskikh terras (Yalomansko-Katunskaya zona) (Geology of High Altai Terraces (Yaloman–Katun Zone)), Tomsk: IPF TPU, 1999.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rakovets, O.A., Morphostructure of Gorny Altai, in Tektonicheskie dvizheniya i noveishie struktury zemnoi kory (Tectonic Movements and Recent Structures of the Crust), Moscow: Nedra, 1967, pp. 363–373.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rodríguez-Pascua, M.A., Calvo, J.P., De Vicente, G., and Gómez-Gras, D., Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in lacustrine sediments of the Prebetic Zone, SE Spain, and their potential use as indicators of earthquake magnitudes during the Late Miocene, Sediment. Geol., 2000, vol. 135, pp. 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rogozhin, E.A. and Platonova, S.G., Ochagovye zony sil’nykh zemletryasenii Gornogo Altaya v golotsene (Source Zones of the Strong Holocene Earthquakes in Gorny Altai), Moscow: OIFZ RAN, 2002.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rogozhin, E.A., Bogachkin, B.M., Nechaev, Y.V., Plato-nova, S.G., Chichagov, V.P., and Chichagova, O.A., Paleoseismological investigations on the territory of Russian (Gorny) Altai, J. Earthquake Predict. Res., 1998, vol. 7, pp. 391–413.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rogozhin, E.A., Ovsyuchenko, A.N., and Marakhanov, A.V., Major earthquakes of the southern Gornyi Altai in the Holocene, Izv., Phys. Solid Earth, 2008, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 469–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rudoy, A.N. and Baker, V.R., Sedimentary effects of cataclysmic Late Pleistocene glacial outburst flooding, Altay Mountains, Siberia. Sediment. Geol., 1993, vol. 85, pp. 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rusanov, G.G., Deev, E.V., Ryapolova, Yu.M., and Zolnikov, I.D., Paleohydrothermal activity of faults in the Gorny Altai based on travertine dating, Geol. Miner.-Syr’evye Resursy Sibiri, 2013, no. 4, pp. 53–64.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rusanov, G.G., Deev, E.V., Zolnikov, I.D., Khazin, L.B., Khazina, I.V., and Kuz’mina, O.B., Reference section of Neogene–Quarternary deposits in the Uimon Basin (Gorny Altai), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2017, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 973–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shmidt, G.A., To the origin of the scarps on the southern slope of the Terekta Ridge in Central Altai, Byull. Kom. Izuch. Chetvertichn. Perioda, Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1963, no. 28, pp. 161–164.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tatevossian, R.E., Rogozhin, E.A., Arefiev, S.S., and Ovsyuchenko, A.N., Earthquake intensity assessment based on environmental effects: principles and case studies, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 2009, vol. 316, pp. 73–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thomas, J.C., Lanza, R., Kazansky, A., Zykin, V., Semakov, N., Mitrokhin, D., and Delvaux, D., Paleomagnetic study of Cenozoic sediments from the Zaisan basin (SE Kazakhstan) and the Chuya depression (Siberian Altai): tectonic implications for Central Asia, Tectonophysics, 2002, vol. 351, pp. 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Trifonov, V.G., Soboleva, O.V., Trifonov, R.V., and Vostrikov, G.A., Sovremennaya geodinamika Al’piisko-Gimalaiskogo kollizionnogo poyasa (Recent Geodynamics of the Alpine–Himalayan Collision Belt), Moscow: GEOS, 2002.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ulomov, V.I. and Medvedeva, N.S., Specialized catalog of earthquakes in Northern Eurasia, 2011. http://seismorus.ru/ eq/spec_catalog.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ulomov, V.I., Bogdanov, M.I., Trifonov, V.G., Gusev, A.A., Gusev, G.S., Akatova, K.N., Aptikaev, F.F., Danilova, T.I., Kozhurin, A.I., Medvedeva, N.S., Nikonov, A.A., Peretokin, S.A., Pustovitenko, B.G., and Strom, A.L., General seismic zoning of the territory of the Russian Federation. Explanatory note to the set of OSR-2016 maps and the list of localities located in earthquake-prone areas, Inzh. Izyskaniya, 2016, no. 7, pp. 49–122.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Volkov, V.V. and Sergeev, V.P., Geologicheskaya karta SSSR m-ba 1 : 200 000. Seriya Gorno-Altaiskaya. List M-45-XV. Ob”yasnitel’naya zapiska (The 1 : 200 000 Geological Map of the USSR, Gorny Altai Series, Sheet M-45-XV, Explanatory Note), Moscow: Gosgeoltekhizdat, 1961.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wells, D.L. and Coppersmith, K.J., New empirical relationship among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area and surface displacement, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 1994, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 974–1002.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yang, S., Li, J., and Wang, Q., The deformation pattern and fault rate in the Tianshan Mountains inferred from GPS observations, Sci. China, Ser. D : Earth Sci., 2008, vol. 51, pp. 1064–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yin, A., Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Asia: a preliminary synthesis, Tectonophysics, 2010, vol. 488, pp. 293–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhalkovskii, N.D., Kuchai, O.A., Muchnaya, V.I., Seismicity and some characteristics of the stress state of the Earth’s crust in the Altai-Sayan region, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 1995,vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 16–25.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zolnikov, I.D. and Deev, E.V., Quaternary glacial superfloods at the Gorny Altai: formation conditions and geological features, Kriosfera Zemli, 2013a, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 74–82.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zol’nikov, I.D. and Deev, E.V., Geological features of Quaternary glacial superfloods and the conditions of their formation in Gorny Altai, Georisk, 2013b, no. 4, pp. 40–45.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zolnikov, I.D., Deev, E.V., Nazarov, D.V., and Kotler, S.A., Comparative analysis of megaflood deposits and alluvium of the Chuya and Katun’ river valleys (Gorny Altai), Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2015, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1162–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zolnikov, I.D., Deev, E.V., Rusanov, G.G., Nazarov, D.V., and Kotler, S.A, New results of OSL dating of Quaternary sediments in the Upper Katun’ valley (Gorny Altai) and adjacent area, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2016, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 933–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia

Personalised recommendations