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Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 590–605 | Cite as

Structure and function of plasminogen/plasmin system

  • R. B. Aisina
  • L. I. Mukhametova
Review Article

Abstract

The main physiological function of plasmin is blood clot fibrinolysis and restoration of normal blood flow. To date, however, it became apparent that in addition to thrombolysis, the plasminogen/plasmin system plays an important physiological and pathological role in a number of other essential processes: degradation of the extracellular matrix, embryogenesis, cell migration, tissue remodeling, wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor cell migration. This review focuses on structural features of plasminogen, regulation of its activation by physiological plasminogen activators, inhibitors of plasmin, and plasminogen activators, and the role of plasminogen binding to fibrin, cellular receptors, and extracellular ligands in various functions performed by plasmin thus formed.

Keywords

plasminogen plasmin plasminogen activators inhibitors angiostatins fibrinolysis inflammation angiogenesis oncogenesis 

Abbreviations

PA

plasminogen activators

6AHA

6-aminohexanoic acid

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

α2-AP

α2-antiplasmin

ECM

extracellular endothelium matrix

uPA

urokinase-type plasminogen activator

PAI-1 and PAI-2

plasminogen activator inhibitors types 1 and 2

K

kringle domain

LBS

lysine-binding site

α2-MG

α2-macroglobulin

MMPs

matrix metalloproteinases

scuPA

single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator

F

finger-like domain

Pm

plasmin

Pg

plasminogen

Glu-Pg and Lys-Pg

Glu- and Lys-forms of plasminogen

ProMMPs

prometalloproteinases

RAS

renin-angiotensin system

uPAR

urokinase and pro-urokinase receptor

VEGF

vascular endothelium growth factor

NTP

N-terminal peptide

tPA

tissue plasminogen activator

tAMCHA

trans-(4-aminomethyl)cyclohexane carboxylic acid (or tranexamic acid)

PDGF

platelet-derived growth factor

FGF

fibroblast growth factor

EGF

epidermal growth factor-like domain

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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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