Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 652–669 | Cite as

Synthesis and properties of chromophores of fluorescent proteins

  • P. E. Ivashkin
  • I. V. Yampolsky
  • K. A. Lukyanov
Review Article


We describe the existing approaches to the synthesis of 5-arylidene-3,5-dihydro-4 H-imidazol-4-ones—model chromophores of fluorescent proteins and their nonnatural analogs. We discuss in detail the chemical (acid-base and redox reactions, cis-trans isomery, etc.) and spectral properties of the chromophores and the influence of substitutes and the environment. The study of synthetic chromophores allows for modeling of the photophysical characteristics of fluorescent proteins.

Key words

fluorescent protein chromoprotein chromophores imidazolone GFP 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. E. Ivashkin
    • 1
  • I. V. Yampolsky
    • 1
  • K. A. Lukyanov
    • 1
  1. 1.Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic ChemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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