Russian Journal of Ecology

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 590–592 | Cite as

Coexistence of Humans and Leopards in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal

  • S. BhandariEmail author
  • B. A. Mawhinney
  • D. Johnson
  • D. R. Bhusal
  • D. Youlatos

The conflict between humans and leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the major reasons that leopard populations are declining in many parts of the world [1, 2, 3]. In Nepal, human-leopard conflict is particularly serious [1], especially when human casualties are involved or when loss of livestock directly affects the quality of life of very poor local communities [1, 2, 4]. This often results in retaliatory killing [3, 4]. Increasing human interactions and remote habitats confined to the far-flung mountain and foothill areas of central and south Asia create difficult challenges for leopard populations [1, 2, 5, 6]. Because of anthropogenic pressure, the conflict between humans and wildlife increases when humans and animals compete for limited resources [6]. In the case of leopards, any interaction between humans and leopards that negatively impacts human social, economic or cultural life, as well as the conservation of leopard populations or habitat is referred to as human-leopard...


questionnaire people leopard conservation Nepal 



We would like to thank all the respondents who helped during our questionnaire survey and many thanks also go to the local people who provided valuable data and information on the human-leopard conflict. Our appreciation also extends to Himalayan Biodiversity Network Nepal for logistical and technical support.

Authors confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest. Authors confirm that animals and humans were involved as subjects and all studies were performed according to applicable standards as directly described in the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Bhandari
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. A. Mawhinney
    • 2
  • D. Johnson
    • 3
  • D. R. Bhusal
    • 4
  • D. Youlatos
    • 5
  1. 1.Himalayan Biodiversity Network-NepalChitwanNepal
  2. 2.University of Colorado—Leeds School of BusinessColoradoUSA
  3. 3.Denver ZooColoradoUSA
  4. 4.Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, KirtipurKathmanduNepal
  5. 5.Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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