Advertisement

Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 52, Issue 12, pp 1515–1532 | Cite as

Carbonate Profile of Soils in the Baikal Region: Structure, Age, and Formation Conditions

  • V. A. GolubtsovEmail author
  • A. A. Cherkashina
  • O. S. Khokhlova
GENESIS AND GEOGRAPHY OF SOILS

Abstract—

The results of the study of the carbonate profiles of soils in the western (Cis-Baikal) and eastern (the Selenga middle mountains) Baikal region are presented. There is a similarity in their structure: numerous CaCO3 maxima in the soil profiles are typical, which is associated with the repeated redistribution of carbonates during different stages of pedogenesis. The carbonate profile of soils in the Baikal region is relatively ancient (the youngest accumulations date back to the Middle Holocene) and a rather conservative formation that does not undergo any noticeable rearrangements under modern climatic conditions. The accumulations of secondary carbonates are localized in the carbonate-accumulative horizons of the modern surface soils and buried Kargin (MIS-3) soils and Holocene soils. The exception is hypocoatings that are often found beyond the indicated horizons, which is associated with a more active redistribution of carbonates within the root system of vegetation. The solid-phase effect of carbonatization (carbonate neoformations) is observed in the study area mainly in the soils formed on calcareous rocks and products of their redeposition and does not depend on the type of soil and the nature of the growing vegetation. Based on the analysis of the composition of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in secondary carbonate accumulations, it was found that carbonate precipitation in soils of the Cis-Baikal region occurs during the degassing of soil solutions in the course of freezing–thawing cycles, dynamic increase and decrease in the soil biological activity, and alternation of the soil moistening with snowmelt and rainwater with its subsequent freezing that can take place in spring and autumn seasons. Under these conditions, atmospheric CO2 has the main influence on the isotopic composition of carbon in pedogenic carbonates; the isotopic composition of oxygen is controlled by the fractionation of isotopes upon freezing of the soil solutions. Secondary carbonate accumulations in the Selenga middle mountains are formed during the soil drying as a result of active water consumption for plant transpiration, which is most pronounced in the first half of summer.

Keywords:

carbonate profile of soils secondary carbonate accumulations composition of stable isotopes 14C AMS-dating morphology 

Notes

FUNDING

The study was performed within the framework of the research program of the Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (no. 0347-2016-0002) and partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 17-04-00092 and 17-04-01526). Micromorphological studies were carried out within the framework of the state assignment AAAA-A18-118013190175-5.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    A. L. Aleksandrovskii, “Environmental records in soils of the Holocene,” in Soil Memory: Soil as a Memory of the Biosphere–Geosphere–Anthroposphere Interactions (LKI, Moscow, 2008), pp. 75–105.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. V. Arinushkina, Manual on the Chemical Analysis of Soils (Moscow State Univ., Moscow, 1970), pp. 166–167.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. I. Volkovintser, Steppe Cryoarid Soils (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1978) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. A. Vorob’eva, “Evolution of soils of foothills and low mountains in the south of Central Siberia in the Holocene,” in Evolution of Soils and Soil Cover: Theory, Diversity of Natural Evolution, and Anthropogenic Transformation of Soils (GEOS, Moscow, 2015), pp. 686–703.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Geology of the Soviet Union, Vol. 17: Irkutsk Oblast (Gosgeoltekhizdat, Moscow, 1962) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Global and Regional Climate and Environment in the Late Cenozoic in Siberia (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 2008) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. A. Golubtsov, Yu. V. Ryzhov, and D. V. Kobylkin, Pedogenesis and Sedimentation in the Selenga Middle Mountains in the Late Glacial Period and Holocene (Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, 2017) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. A. Golubtsov, O. S. Khokhlova, and A. A. Cherkashina, “Carbonate rhizoliths in dune sands of the Belaya River valley (Upper Angara region),” Eurasian Soil Sci. 52, 83–93 (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229319010034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. A. Golubtsov, A. A. Cherkashina, K. E. Pustovoytov, and K. Stahr, “Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in pedogenic carbonate coatings of chernozems in the southern Cis-Baikalia as indicators of local environmental changes,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 47, 1015–1026 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. V. Danko, E. B. Bezrukova, and L. A. Orlova, “Reconstructing the development of the geosystems of the Primorsky Range during the latter half of the Holocene,” Geogr. Nat. Resour. 30, 246–252 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. V. Dan’ko, S. B. Kuz’min, and V. A. Snytko, “Baikal coastal geosystems and their landscape-geochemical structure,” Geogr. Prirod. Resur., No. 3, 45–51 (2000).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salt-Affected Soils of Russia (Akademkniga, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. I. Karnaukhov and K. V. Morozova, “Cryogenic accumulation of carbonate lime in soils of the south of Central and Eastern Siberia,” in Permafrost and Soils, No. 3: Genesis, Geography, and Classification of Permafrost Soils (Yakut Branch, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences of USSR, Yakutsk, 1974), pp. 135–140.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. V. Kovda and O. S. Khokhlova, “Carbonate profile of soils,” in Evolution of Soils and Soil Cover: Theory, Diversity of Nature Evolution and Anthropogenic Transformation of Soils (GEOS, Moscow, 2015), pp. 140–158.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. A. Kozlova and A. P. Makarova, Ecological Factors of Pedogenesis in the Southern Cis-Baikal Region (Irkutsk State Univ., Irkutsk, 2012), pp. 86–96.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. T. Kolesnichenko, Zalarinka Winter Wheat in Irkutsk Oblast (Promekobezopastnost, Moscow, 2003) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. S. Kostrova, H. Meyer, P. E. Tarasov, E. V. Bezrukova, B. Chapligin, A. Kossler, L. A. Pavlova, and M. I. Kuzmin, “Oxygen isotope composition of diatoms from sediments of Lake Kotokel (Buryatia),” Russ. Geol. Geophys. 57, 1239–1247 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2016.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. A. Kuz’min, Soils of the Cis-Baikal Region and Northern Transbaikalia (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1988) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. A. Logachev, T. K. Lomonosova, and V. M. Klimanova, Cenozoic Deposits of the Irkutsk Amphitheater (Nauka, Moscow, 1964) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    O. V. Makeev, Soddy Taiga Soils of the South of Central Siberia: Genesis, Properties, and Rational Use (Buryat. Knizhn. Izd., Ulan-Ude, 1959) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Highlands of Cis-Baikal and Transbaikalia (Nauka, Moscow, 1974) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. V. Nadezhdin, Lena-Angara Forest-Steppe (Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow, 1961) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scientific Reference Handbook on Climate in the USSR, Ser. 3: Long-Term Data, Parts 1–6, No. 23: Buryat ASS-R, Chita Oblast (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1989) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scientific Reference Handbook on Climate in the USSR, Ser. 3: Long-Term Data, Parts 1–6, No. 22: Irkutsk Oblast and Western Part of Buryat ASSR (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    I. V. Nikolaev, Soils of Irkutsk Oblast (Irkutsk, 1949) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. A. Nogina, Soils of Transbaikalia (Nauka, Moscow, 1964) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Highlands and Lowlands of Eastern Siberia (Nauka, Moscow, 1971) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. A. Rode, Fundamentals of the Theory on Soil Moisture, Vol. 2: Study Methods of Water Regime of Soils (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1969) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    V. A. Snytko and L. V. Dan’ko, “Soil-geochemical features of ecotone of taiga and steppe in the Olkhon region,” Geogr. Prirod. Resur., No. 1, 59–65 (2004).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. A. Sokolova, E. K. Kulagina, V. A. Pavlov, and V. V. Tsarevskii, “Comprehensive study of soil carbonates,” in Modern Physical and Chemical Methods of Soil Studies (Moscow State Univ., Moscow, 1987), pp. 171–194.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. A. Ufimtseva, Steppe and Forest-Steppe Soils of the Buryat ASSR (Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow, 1960) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. A. Khotinskii, Holocene of Northern Eurasia (Nauka, Moscow, 1977) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. Barta, B. Bradák, A. Novothny, A. Markó, J. Szeberényi, K. Kiss, and J. Kovács, “The influence of paleogeomorphology on the stable isotope signals of paleosols,” Geoderma 330, 221–231 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.05.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. L. Baumhardt and R. J. Lascano, “Physical and hydraulic properties of a calcic horizon,” Soil Sci. 155, 368–375 (1993).  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-199306000-00002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. W. Birkeland, Soils and Geomorphology (Oxford University Press, New York, 1999).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Bowsher, M. Steer, and A. Tobin, Plant Biochemistry (Garland, New York, 2008).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. O. Breecker, Z. D. Sharp, and L. D. McFadden, “Seasonal bias in the formation and stable isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate in modern soils from central New Mexico, USA,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 121 (3–4), 630–640 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1130/B26413.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. L. Broughton, “Environmental Implication of competitive growth fabrics on stalactitic carbonate,” Int. J. Speleol. 13, 31–41 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. Cerling, “The stable isotopic composition of soil carbonate and its relationship to climate,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 71, 229–240 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    T. E. Cerling and J. Quade, “Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil carbonates,” in Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Records, Geophysical Monograph Series vol. 78 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1993), pp. 217–231.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chadwick O.A. and Graham, R.C. “Pedogenic processes,” in Handbook of Soil Science (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000), pp. 41–75.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M.-A. Courty, C. Marlin, L. Dever, P. Tremblay, and P. Vachier, “The properties, genesis and environmental significance of calciticpendents from the High Arctic (Spitsbergen),” Geoderma 61, 71–102 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Egli and P. Fitze, “Quantitative aspects of carbonate leaching of soils with differing ages and climates,” Catena 46, 35–62 (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(01)00154-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. Eswaran, P. F. Reich, J. M. Kimble, F. H. Beinroth, E. Padmanabhan, and P. Moncharoen, “Global carbon sinks,” in Global Climate Change and Pedogenic Carbonates (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000), pp. 15–26.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    L. H. “Gile, A classification of ca horizons in soils of a desert region, Dona Ana County, New Mexico,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 25, 52–61 (1961).  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1961.03615995002500010024x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    N. Kurita, A. Numaguti, A. Sugimoto, K. Ichiyanagi, and N. Yoshida, “Relationship between the variation of isotopic ratios and the source of summer precipitation in eastern Siberia,” J. Geophys. Res. D: Atmos. 108 (11), 4339 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001359 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. M. Marion, D. S. Introne, and K. van Cleve, “The stable isotope geochemistry of CaCO3 on the Tanana River floodplain of interior Alaska, U.S.A.: composition and mechanisms of formation,” Chem. Geol. 86, 97–110 (1991).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. H. Monger, D. R. Cole, B. J. Buck, and R. A. Gallegos, “Scale and the isotopic record of C4 plants in pedogenic carbonate: from the biome to the rhizosphere,” Ecology 90 (6), 1498–1511 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    L. C. Nordt, C. T. Hallmark, L. P. Wilding, and T. W. Boutton, “Quantifying pedogenic carbonate accumulations using stable carbon isotopes,” Geoderma 82, 115–136 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00099-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    N. A. Peters, K. W. Huntington, and G. D. Hoke, “Hot or not? Impact of seasonally variable soil carbonate formation on paleotemperature and O-isotope records from clumped isotope thermometry,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 361, 208–218 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2012.10.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Pustovoytov, K. Schmidt, and H. Taubald, “Evidence for Holocene environmental changes in the northern Fertile Crescent provided by pedogenic carbonate coatings,” Quat. Res. 67, 315–327 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2007.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. Quade, T. Cerling, and J. Bowman, “Systematic variations in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate along elevation transects in the southern Great Basin, United States,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 101, 464–475 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Quade, C. Garzione, and J. Eiler, “Paleoelevation reconstruction using pedogenic carbonates,” Rev. Miner. Geochem. 66, 53–88 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.2138/rmg.2007.66.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    G. J. Retallack, “Pedogenic carbonate proxies for amount and seasonality of precipitation in paleosols,” Geology 33, 333–336 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1130/G21263.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    D. L. Royer, “Depth to pedogenic carbonate horizon as a paleoprecipitation indicator?” Geology 27, 1123–1126 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027b1123:DTPCHAN2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Statistical Treatment of Data on Environmental Isotopes in Precipitation, Technical Reports Series no. 331 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1992), p. 240.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. Vogt, “Cryogenic physicochemical precipitations: iron, silica, calcium carbonate,” Permafrost Periglacial Process. 1, 283–293 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    T. Vogt and A. E. Corte, “Secondary precipitates in Pleistocene and present cryogenic environments (Mendoza Precordillera, Argentina, Transbaikalia, Siberia, and Seymour Island, Antarctica),” Sedimentology 43, 53–64 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    T. Vogt, N. Clauer, and I. Techer, “The glaciogenic origin of the Pleistocene calcareous dust in Argentina on the basis of field, mineralogical, textural, and geochemical analyses,” Quat. Res. 91 (1), 218–233 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1017/qua.2018.74 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    K. Zamanian, K. Pustovoytov, and Y. Kuzyakov, “Pedogenic carbonates: forms and formation processes,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 157, 1–17 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. A. Golubtsov
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. A. Cherkashina
    • 1
  • O. S. Khokhlova
    • 2
  1. 1.Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of SciencesIrkutskRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science, Russian Academy of SciencesPushchinoRussia

Personalised recommendations