Advertisement

Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 51, Issue 9, pp 1008–1020 | Cite as

Humus Horizons of Soils in Urban Ecosystems

  • B. F. Aparin
  • E. Yu. Sukhacheva
  • A. M. Bulysheva
  • M. A. Lazareva
Genesis and Geography of Soils
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

The origin, structure, composition, and properties of soil humus horizons in functional zones of St. Petersburg have been studied. The radiocarbon age of organic matter in the humus horizons varies from 500 to 2700 years, which attests to the natural origin of humus. The structure of microbiomes in the humus horizons of soils under different plant communities has its specific features. The taxonomic structure of microbial communities at the phylum level reflects both genetic features of natural soils and the impact of anthropogenic factors, including alkalization typical of the studied urban soils. Tomographic studies have shown that the transporting system of humus horizons is less developed in the anthropogenically transformed soils in comparison with the natural soils. It can be supposed that the intensity of water and gas exchange in the anthropogenic soils is much lower than that in the natural soils. The fractional and group composition of humus in the urban soils is specified by the long-term pedogenesis, on one hand, and by the impact of metabolic products of the city and the factors of soil formation in the megalopolis, on the other hand. Bulk density of the humus horizon in the urban soils is higher than that in the natural soils; the portion of overcompacted humus horizons in the urban soils reaches 44%. Humus horizons of the lawns along highways are most contaminated with heavy metals: Pb, Zn, and Cu. There are no definite regularities in the distribution of major nutrients (NPK) in the humus horizons of anthropogenic soils.

Keywords

urban soils Technosols biogeomembrane ecological functions of soils soil microbiome radiocarbon age mesopedofauna heavy metals 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E. E. Andronov, A. G. Pinaev, E. V. Pershina, and E. P. Chizhevskaya, Isolation of DNA from Soil Samples: Recommendations (All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, St. Petersburg, 2011) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. F. Aparin and E. Yu. Sukhacheva, “Classification of urban soils in Russian and international soil classification systems,” Byull. Pochv. Inst. im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, No. 79, 53–72 (2015).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. F. Aparin and E. Yu. Sukhacheva, “The soil cover of St. Petersburg: from swampy forests to a modern megalopolis,” Biosfera 5 (3), 327–352 (2013).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. F. Aparin and E. Yu. Sukhacheva, “Principles of soil mapping of a megalopolis with St. Petersburg as an example,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 47 (7), 650–661 (2014). doi 10.1134/S1064229314070035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. G. Bondarev and I. V. Kuznetsova, “Agrophysical module in the models of soil fertility control,” Byull. Pochv. Inst. im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, No. 48, 55–58 (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. N. Vodyanitskii, “Organic matter of urban soils: a review,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 48 (8), 802–811 (2015). doi 10.1134/S1064229315080116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. A. Vorob’eva, Theory and Practice of the Chemical Analysis of Soils (GEOS, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. I. Gerasimova, M. N. Stroganova, N. V. Mozharova, and T. V. Prokof’eva, Genesis, Geography, and Reclamation of Anthropogenic Soils (Oikumena, Smolensk, 2003) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. M. Gerke, E. B. Skvortsova, and D. V. Korost, “Tomographic method of studying soil pore space: Current perspectives and results for some Russian soils,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 45 (7), 700–709 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. T. Dmitriev, N. I. Kaznina, and I. A. Pinigina, Sanitary-Chemical Analysis of Pollutants in the Environment: Handbook (Khimiya, Moscow, 1989) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. A. Kachinskii, Mechanical and Microaggregate Compositions of Soil: Study Methods (Academy of Sciences of Soviet Union, Moscow, 1958) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. L. Shishov, V. D. Tonkonogov, I. I. Lebedeva, and M. I. Gerasimova, Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (Oikumena, Smolensk, 2004) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps (UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 2015; Moscow State Univ., Moscow, 2017).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. G. Mordkovich, “Invertebrates and analysis of elementary soil processes,” Pochvovedenie, No. 10, 92–99 (1991).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. I. Obukhov and O. I. Plekhanova, Use of Atomic Absorption Analysis in Soil Biological Studies (Moscow State Univ., Moscow, 1991) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. V. Ponomareva and T. A. Plotnikova, Humus and Pedogenesis: Methods and Study Results (Nauka, Leningrad, 1980) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. V. Prokof’eva, M. I. Gerasimova, O. S. Bezuglova, K. A. Bakhmatova, A. A. Gol’eva, S. N. Gorbov, E. A. Zharikova, N. N. Matinyan, E. N. Nakvasina, and N. E. Sivtseva, “Inclusion of soils and soil-like bodies of urban territories into the Russian soil classification system,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 47 (10), 959–967 (2014). doi 10.1134/S1064229314100093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. V. Prokofyeva, I. A. Martynenko, and F. A. Ivannikov, “Classification of Moscow soils and parent materials and its possible inclusion in the classification system of Russian soils Eurasian Soil Science,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 44 (5), 561–571 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. V. Prokof’eva and M. N. Stroganova, Soils of Moscow. Urban Soils: Description and Ecological Role (GEOS, Moscow, 2003) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. B. Skvortsova, V. A. Rozhkov, K. N. Abrosimov, K. A. Romanenko, S. F. Khokhlov, D. D. Khaidapova, V. V. Klyueva, and A. V. Yudina, “Microtomographic analysis of pore space in a virgin soddy-podzolic soil,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 49 (11), 1250–1258 (2016). doi 10.1134/S1064229316110090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. V. Smagin, N. A. Azovtseva, M. V. Smagina, A. L. Stepanov, A. D. Myagkova, and A. S. Kurbatova, “Criteria and methods to assess the ecological status of soils in relation to the landscaping of urban territories,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 39 (5), 539–551 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. R. Striganova, Feeding of Soil Saprophages (Nauka, Moscow, 1980) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. N. Stroganova and A. V. Rappoport, “Specific features of anthropogenic soils in botanical gardens of metropolises in the southern taiga subzone,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 38 (9), 966–972 (2005).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    O. A. Chichagova and E. P. Zazovskaya, “Radiocarbon dating: past, present, and future. Development of the concept of I.P. Gerasimov,” Byull. Pochv. Inst. im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, No. 81, 160–176 (2015). doi 10.19047/0136-1694-2015-81-160-176Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    O. A. Chichagova and A. E. Cherkinskii, “Radiocarbon analysis of soil organic matter and age of soils,” Biol. Nauki, No. 8, 5–18 (1979).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. N. Chukov, Structural and Functional Parameters of Soil Organic Matter under Anthropogenic Impact (St. Petersburg State Univ., St. Petersburg, 2001) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. N. Chukov, E. D. Lodygin, D. N. Gabov, and V. A. Beznosikov, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of St. Petersburg,” Vestn. S.-Peterb. Univ., Ser. 3: Biol., No. 1, 119–129 (2006).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. V. Shein, E. B. Skvortsova, A. V. Dembovetskii, K. N. Abrosimov, L. I. Il’in, and N. A. Shnyrev, “Poresize distribution in loamy soils: a comparison between microtomographic and capillarimetric determination methods,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 49 (3), 315–325 (2016). doi 10.1134/S1064229316030091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. F. Aparin, E. E. Andronov, and E. Yu. Sukhacheva, “Taxonomic structure of microbial communities in the humus horizons of urban soils, Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Soils of Urban Industrial Traffic Mining and Military Areas (SUITMA 9) “Urbanization: a challenge and an opportunity for soil functions and ecosystem services,” Abstracts of Papers (Moscow, 2017), pp. 98–99.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kh. A. Arslanov, T. V. Tertychnaya, and S. B. Chernov, “Problems and methods of dating low-activity samples by liquid scintillation counting,” Radiocarbon 35 (3), 393–398 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. M. Bulysheva, E. Yu. Sukhacheva, B. F. Aparin, and M. A. Lazareva, “Humus horizons of urban ecosystem soils, Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Soils of Urban Industrial Traffic Mining and Military Areas (SUITMA 9) “Urbanization: a challenge and an opportunity for soil functions and ecosystem services,” Abstracts of Papers (Moscow, 2017), pp. 84–86.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. Burghardt, “Soils in urban and industrial environments,” Z. Pflanzenemahr. Bodenkd. 157, 205–214 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. M. Kulkov, B. F. Aparin, and E. Yu. Sukhacheva, “Structure of pore space in humus horizons of urban soils, Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Soils of Urban Industrial Traffic Mining and Military Areas (SUITMA 9) “Urbanization: a challenge and an opportunity for soil functions and ecosystem services,” Abstracts of Papers (Moscow, 2017), pp. 353–355.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Lehmann and K. Stahr, “Nature and significance of anthropogenic urban soils,” J. Soils Sediments 7 (4), 247–260 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. R. Mardis, “Next-generation DNA sequencing methods,” Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 9, 387–402 (2008). doi 10.1146/annurev.genom.9.081307.164359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Charzynski, P. Hulisz, and R. Bednarek, Technogenic soils of Poland (Polish Society of Soil Science, Torun, 2013).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. V. Pyatina, “Mesofauna of Saint-Petersburg soils, Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Soils of Urban Industrial Traffic Mining and Military Areas (SUITMA 9) “Urbanization: a challenge and an opportunity for soil functions and ecosystem services,” Abstracts of Papers (Moscow, 2017), pp. 406–407.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Soils within Cities. Global Approaches to Their Sustainable Management -Composition, Properties, and Functions of Soils of the Urban Environment (Schweizerbart Science, Stuttgart, 2017).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Iu. V. Symonova, “Urban soils sorption function, Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Soils of Urban Industrial Traffic Mining and Military Areas (SUITMA 9) “Urbanization: a challenge and an opportunity for soil functions and ecosystem services,” Abstracts of Papers (Moscow, 2017), pp. 59–61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. F. Aparin
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. Yu. Sukhacheva
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. M. Bulysheva
    • 1
  • M. A. Lazareva
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.St. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Dokuchaev Central Museum of Soil ScienceSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Dokuchaev Soil Science InstituteMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations