Advertisement

Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 555–566 | Cite as

Soils of slopes in the taiga zone of the Middle Ob reaches

  • N. A. Karavaeva
  • T. A. SokolovaEmail author
Genesis and Geography of Soils

Abstract

The morphology, chemical properties, composition of phyllosilicates, as well as their transformation in loamy soils developing on slopes of ridges of the Vakh Upland in Western Siberia, are discussed. Data on two soil profiles-gleyic svetlozem of the middle slope and podzolized gleyzem of the footslope—are presented. Both soils have an acid reaction. The textural differentiation is weakly pronounced in the gleyic svetlozem and more pronounced in the podzolized gleyzem. The soils differ in their cryological conditions. The thawing depth in the svetlozem is about 60–70 cm, and the lower part of the profile to a depth of 3.2 m largely remains in the frozen state. Its complete thawing is only possible during the warm climatic cycles. This is a seasonally frozen soil with the long-lasting frozen state. It is characterized by the thick cryometamorphic (CRM) horizon. The gleyzem is a “normal” seasonally frozen soil with complete thawing of seasonal frost in summer. The CRM horizon is absent in its profile. The alteration of clay minerals in the soil profiles includes their partial dissolution, the formation of soil chlorites, and the transformation of illite into more labile structures. In the upper horizons of both soils, this transformation proceeds through the stage of mixed-layered illite-smectites. In the gleyzem, it reaches a more advanced stage of the formation of beidellite. The cryometamorphic horizons are specified by some amorphization of phyllosilicates and, probably, by the partial dissolution of their crystal lattices under the impact of frequent zero-temperature transitions and cryogenesis in the frozen state.

Keywords

gleyic svetlozem (Histic Albic Retisol (Loamic, Cutanic)) podzolized gleyzem (Histic Reductigleyic Gleysol (Loamic, Gelic)) transformation of clay minerals phase transitions of soil water frost cryogenesis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N. A. Avetov, S. A. Avetyan, E. I. Dorofeeva, and S. Y. Trofimov, “Automorphic taiga soils of the Sredneobskaya Lowland,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 45(7), 651–656 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. V. Arinushkina, Manual on the Chemical Analysis of Soils (Moscow State University, Moscow, 1970) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Kh. Aidinyan, Clay Separation from Soil (Giprovodkhoz, Moscow, 1960) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. G. Vasil’ev and F. D. Ovcharenko, “Chemistry of the surface of oxidized forms of natural phyllosilicates,” Usp. Khim. 46(8), 1488–1511 (1977).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. M. Gadzhiev and S. M. Ovchinnikov, Middle-Taiga Soils of Western Siberia (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1977) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. V. Dobrovol’skii, E. D. Nikitin, and T. V. Afanas’eva, Soil Formation in Continental Taiga (Western Siberia) (Moscow State University, 1981) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. S. Dolgova and I. P. Gavrilova, “Specific features of the northern and middle taiga subzones of Western Siberia (Tyumen oblast),” in Natural Conditions of Western Siberia (Moscow State University, Moscow, 1971), No. 1, pp. 77–90.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. A. Karavaeva, “Acid eluvial-gley soils of the central and northern taiga of Western Siberia,” Pochvovedenie, No. 3, 3–18 (1973).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. A. Karavaeva and T. A. Sokolova, “Cryometamorphic gleyzems in the taiga of Western Siberia: chemical and mineralogical properties, ecology, and genesis,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 47(8), 741–751 (2014). doi: 10.7868/S0032180X1408005XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Classification and Diagnostics of Russian Soils (Oikumena, Smolensk, 2004) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. N. Konishchev and V. V. Rogov, “The impact of cryogenesis on clay minerals,” Kriosfera Zemli 12(1), 51–58 (2007).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. N. Konishchev, V. V. Rogov, and G. N. Shchurina, “The impact of cryogenic processes on clay minerals,” Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 5: Geogr., No. 5, (1974).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. A. Kornblyum, T. G. Dement’eva, N. G. Zyrin, and A. G. Birina, “Transformation of clay minerals upon the development of southern and vertic chernozems, solod, and solonetz,” Pochvovedenie, No. 1, 107–114 (1972).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Minerals: Handbook (Nauka, Moscow, 1992), No. 1.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. M. Ovchinnikov, T. A. Sokolova, and V. O. Targulian, “Clay minerals in the taiga and forest-tundra soils of Western Siberia,” Pochvovedenie, No. 12, 90–103 (1973).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fundamentals of Geocryology (Moscow State University, Moscow, 1996), Part 2 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Yu. Pushcharovskii, X-Ray Analysis of Minerals (Geoinformmark, Moscow, 2000) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, Oxford UK, 1997).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. A. Rode, Podzol-Forming Process (Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow, 1937) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. A. Sokolova, T. Ya. Dronova, and I. I. Tolpeshta, Clay Minerals in Soils (Moscow, 2005) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. O. Targulian, Soil Formation and Weathering in Cold Humid Regions (Nauka, Moscow, 1971) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    I. I. Tolpeshta, Doctoral Dissertation in Biology (Moscow, 2010).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    I. I. Tolpeshta, T. A. Sokolova, E. Bonifacio, and G. Falcone, “Pedogenic chlorites in podzolic soils with different intensities of hydromorphism: origin, properties, and conditions of their formation,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 43(7), 777–787 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. D. Tonkonogov, Automorphic Soil Formation in Tundra and Taiga Zones of the East European and West Siberian Plains (Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, Moscow, 2010) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    N. M. Fedorova, “Temperature regime of loamy soils on the interfluves in the Sos’va area of the Ob River basin (Western Siberia) and some aspects of modern pedogenesis,” Pochvovedenie, No. 3, 74–91 (1970).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. M. Fedorova and E. A. Yarilova, “Hydrothermic regime and morphology of loamy soils in the middle taiga of Western Siberia,” Pochvovedenie, No. 7, 79–88 (1972).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    V. Ya. Khrenov, Soils of the Cryolithozone of Western Siberia (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 2011) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. P. Chizhikova, “Problems of the genetic interpretation of data on the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction of soils,” in Problems of Soil Sciences (Nauka, Moscow, 1981), pp. 184–188.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Soil Mineralogy with Environmental Application, Ed. by J. B. Dixon and D. G. Schulze (Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 2002).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. R. Fischer, “Einfluβ von Frieren und Tauen auf Glimmer und Orthoclas,” Z. Pflaz. Bodenkund. 1–2, 37–40 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. J. Huertas, L. Chou, and R. Wollast, “Mechanism of kaolinite dissolution at room temperature and pressure: Part 1. Surface speciation,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 62(3), 417–431 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    F. J. Huertas, L. Chou, and R. Wollast, “Mechanism of kaolinite dissolution at room temperature and pressure: Part II. Kinetic study,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63(19/20), 3261–3275 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    B. E. Kalinowski and P. Schweda, “Kinetics of muscovite, phlogopite, and biotite dissolution and alteration at pH 1–4, room temperature,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60(3), 367–385 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. L. Malcolm, W. D. Nettlton, and R. J. Mc Cracken, “Pedogenic formation of montmorillonite from a 2: 1–2: 2 integrated clay minerals,” Clays Clay Miner. 16(6), 405–414 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. L. Rozalån, F. J. Huertas, P. V. Brady, J. Cama, S. García-Palma, and J. Linares, “Experimental study of the effect of pH on the kinetics of montmorillonite dissolution at 25°C,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(17), 4224–4253 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. van Vliet-Lanoe, Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2010), pp. 81–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. A. Vicente, M. Razzaghe, and M. Robert, “Formation of aluminium hydroxyl vermiculite (integrade) and smectite from mica under acidic conditions,” Clay Miner. 12, 101–111 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    World Reference Base for Soil Resources (Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome, 2014).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of GeographyRussian Academy of ScienceMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Faculty of Soil ScienceMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations