Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 208–217 | Cite as

Termites as a factor of spatial differentiation of CO2 fluxes from the soils of monsoon tropical forests in southern Vietnam

  • V. O. Lopes de Gerenyu
  • A. E. Anichkin
  • V. K. Avilov
  • A. N. Kuznetsov
  • I. N. Kurganova
Soil Biology


Annual dynamics of CO2 fluxes from soils and the impact of the living activity of termites on them were studied in plain lagerstroemia semideciduous monsoon tropical forests of southern Vietnam. On the plot populated by Globitermes sulphureus and Odontotermes termites, a detailed study of the spatial heterogeneity of the CO2 emission from the surface of soil and termite mounds was performed in the wet and dry seasons. It was found that the average rate of the CO2 emission from termite mounds was two times and more higher than that from the background soil surface. In the dry season, it comprised 91 ± 7 mg C/m2 per h from the background soil and 196 ± 16 mg C/m2 per h from the termite mounds. In the wet season, the CO2 emission rate was considerably higher and reached 266 ± 40 and 520 ± 39 mg C/m2 per h, respectively. The maximum rates of CO2 fluxes were determined in the wet season in some of the measurement chambers installed on termite mounds; they reached 730–880 mg C/m2 per h. Though termite mounds occupy about 4% of the area of tropical forest ecosystems, the overall effect of termites on the carbon budget was more significant; according to our estimates, it reached up to 10% of the total efflux of CO2 from the soil surface.


monsoon forests termites dynamics of CO2 fluxes Andosols 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. E. Anichkin, “Soil fauna: structure and seasonal dynamics,” in Structure and Functions of Soil Fauna in Tropic Monsoon Forest (Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam), Ed. by A. V. Tiunov (KMK, Moscow, 2011), pp. 44–75.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. E. Anichkin, Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (Moscow, 2008).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. E. Anichkin, N. V. Belyaeva, I. G. Dovgobrod, Yu. B. Shveenkova, and A. V. Tiunov, “Soil microarthropods and macrofauna in monsoon tropical forests of Cat Tien and Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Parks, southern Vietnam,” Biol. Bull. 34(5), 498–506 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. E. Anichkin and A. V. Tiunov, “Dynamics of supply and decomposition of litter,” in Structure and functions of Soil Fauna in Tropic Monsoon Forest (Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam), Ed. by A. V. Tiunov (KMK, Moscow, 2011), pp. 91–100.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    N. I. Bazilevich and A. A. Titlyanova, Biotic Cycle on the Five Continents: Nitrogen and Ash Elements in Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems (Sib. Otd., Ross. Akad. Nauk, Novosibirsk, 2008) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. V. Belyaeva, “Role of termites in utilization of leaf litter,” in Study of Terrestrial Ecosystems of Vietnam (GEOS, Moscow, 2003), pp. 167–187.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. V. Belyaeva, “Fauna and biology of termites (Isoptera),” in Structure and functions of Soil Fauna in Tropic Monsoon Forest (Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam), Ed. by A. V. Tiunov (KMK, Moscow, 2011), pp. 91–100.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. V. Belyaeva and A. V. Tiunov, “Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat Tien National Park (Southern Vietnam),” Biol. Bull. 37(4), 374–381 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoang Zyong Bik, Candidate’s Dissertation in Agriculture (Moscow, 1999).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. N. Kuznetsov, Tropical Dipterocarpic Forest (GEOS, Moscow, 2003) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. N. Kuznetsov and S. P. Kuznetsova, “Forest vegetation: species composition and wood structure,” in Structure and Functions of Soil Fauna in Tropic Monsoon Forest (Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam), Ed. by A. V. Tiunov (KMK, Moscow, 2011), pp. 16–43.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. O. Lopes de Gerenyu, I. N. Kurganova, T. N. Myakshina, Y. A. Kurbatova, A. V. Tiunov, A. E. Anichkin, and A. N. Kuznetsov, “Daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes from soils under different stands of monsoon tropical forest,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 44(9), 984–990 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thin Van Nguen and A. E. Anichkin, “Cat Tien National Park: general information,” in Structure and Functions of Soil Fauna in Tropic Monsoon Forest (Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam), Ed. by A. V. Tiunov (KMK, Moscow, 2011), pp. 11–15.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. A. Bezerra-Gusmão, J. R. C. Barbosa, M. R. de Barbosa, A. G. Bandeira, and E. V. S. B. Sampaio, “Are nests of Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Isoptera, Termitidae) important in the C cycle in the driest area of semiarid caatinga in northeast Brazil?” Appl. Soil Ecol. 47(1), 1–5 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. E. Bignell, Y. Roisin, and N. Lo, Biology of Termites: A Modern Synthesis (Springer, Berlin, 2011), pp. 519–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. E. Bignell, P. Eggleton, L. Nunes, and K. L. Thomas, “Termites as mediator of carbon fluxes in tropical forest: budget for carbon dioxide and methane and methane emission,” in Forests and Insects, Ed. by A. D. Watt, N. E. Stork, and M. D. Hunter (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997), pp. 109–134.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Blanc, G. Maury-Lechon, and J.-P. Pascal, “Structure, floristic composition and natural regeneration in the forests of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: an analysis of the successional trends,” J. Biogeogr. 27, 141–157 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Brauman, “Effect of gut transit and mound deposit on soil organic matter transformations in the soil feeding termite: a review,” Eur. J. Soil Biol. 36, 117–125 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Brümmer, H. Papen, R. Wassmann, and N. Brüggemann, “Fluxes of CH4 and CO2 from soil and termite mounds in south Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa),” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 23, GB100 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008GB003237Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Hashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. Suzuki, A. Inoue, H. Takizawa, I. Kosaka, K. Tanaka, C. Tantasirin, and N. Tangtham, “Soil respiration and soil CO2 concentration in a tropical forest, Thailand,” J. For. Res. 9, 75–79 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Itoh, Y. Kosugi, S. Takanashi, S. Kanemitsu, K. Osaka, Y. Hayashi, M. Tani, and A. R. Nik, “Effects of soil water status on the spatial variation of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in tropical rain-forest soils in Peninsular Malaysia,” J. Trop. Ecol. 28, 557–570 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    IUSS Working Group WRB, Word Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006 (Rome, FAO, 2006).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Jamali, S. J. Livesley, T. Z. Dawes, L. B. Hutley, and S. K. Arndt, “Termite mound emissions of CH4 and CO2 are primarily determined by seasonal changes in termite biomass and behavior,” Oecologia 167, 525–534 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Jamali, S. J. Livesley, L. B. Hutley, B. Fest, and S. K. Arndt, “The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific,” Biogeosciences 10, 2229–2240 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Konate, X. Le Roux, B. Verdier, and M. Lepage, “Effect of underground fungus growing termites on carbon dioxide emission at the pointand landscape-scales in an African savanna,” Funct. Ecol. 17, 305–314 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    I. N. Kurganova, V. O. Lopes de Gerenyu, J. F. Gallardo Lancho, and C. T. Oehm, “Evaluation of the rates of soil organic matter mineralization in forest ecosystems of temperate continental, Mediterranean, and tropical monsoon climates,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 45(1), 68–79 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    I. N. Kurganova, V. O. Lopes de Gerenyu, L. N. Rozanova, D. V. Sapronov, T. N. Myakshina, and V. N. Kudeyarov, “Annual and seasonal CO2 fluxes from Russian southern taiga soils,” Tellus B 55, 338–344 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Lopez-Hernandes, “Nutrient dynamics (C, N and P) in termite mounds of Nasutitermes ephratae from savannas of the Orinoco Llanos (Venezuela),” Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 747–753 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Matsumoto and T. Abe, “The role of termites in an equatorial rain forest ecosystem of west Malaysia,” Oecologia 38, 261–274 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. H. McNabb, A. D. Startsev, and H. Nguyen, “Soil wetness and traffic level effects on bulk density and airfilled porosity of compacted boreal forest soils,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65, 1238–1247 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khanh Van Nguyen, Thi Hien Nguyen, Ke Loc Phan, and Tien Hiep Nguyen, Bioclimatic Diagrams of Vietnam (Vietnam Nat. Univ., Hanoi, 2000).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. C. Park, J. D. Majer, R. J. Hobbs, and T. U. Bae, “Harvesting rate of the termite Drepanotermes tamminensis (Hill) within the native woodland and shrubland of the Western Australian wheat belt,” Ecol. Res. 8, 269–275 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. W. Raich and W. H. Schlesinger, “The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate,” Tellus B 44, 81–89 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Rouland, F. Lenoir, and M. Lepage, “The role of the symbiotic fungus in the digestive metabolism of several species of fungus-growing termites,” Compar. Biochem. Physiol. 99, 657–663 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. Schuurman, “Decomposition rates and termite assemblage composition in semiarid Africa,” Ecology 86(5), 1236–1249 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    L. Souto, K. Kitayama, J. D. Hay, and I. Icuma, “Observations on initial strategies of Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Isoptera: Termitidae; Nasutitermitidae) on a two dimensional surface,” Sociobiology 34, 619–624 (1999).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. Werner, K. Kiese, and K. Butterbach-Bahl, “Soilatmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4, and CO2 and controlling environmental factors for tropical rain forest sites in western Kenya,” J. Geophys. Res. D: Atmos. 112(3), (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006JD007388/Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Yamada, T. Inoue, D. Wiwatwitaya, M. Okhuma, T. Kudo, T. Abe, and A. Sugimoto, “Carbon mineralization by termites in tropical forests, with emphasis on fungus combs,” Ecol. Res. 20, 453–460 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. O. Lopes de Gerenyu
    • 1
  • A. E. Anichkin
    • 2
    • 3
  • V. K. Avilov
    • 1
  • A. N. Kuznetsov
    • 2
    • 3
  • I. N. Kurganova
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil ScienceRussian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow oblastRussia
  2. 2.Joint Vietnamese-Russian Tropical Research and Technological CenterHanoi-Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam
  3. 3.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations