Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 468–483 | Cite as

Soil zonality of the Chukotka Upland

  • N. A. Karavaeva
Genesis and Geography of Soils


The vertical soil-geographic zonality of the Chukotka Upland in the area of the Amguema River valley can be considered a model vertical zonality in the Low Arctic regions at the interface between the continental and oceanic climates. The plain bottom of the valley has a continental climate. The surrounding mountains are under the influence of an oceanic climate, which is more pronounced in the low mountains and less pronounced in the medium-high mountains. Three altitudinal soil zones are distinguished: (1) the plain Subarctic zone with the absolute heights below 200–400 m a.s.l., where cryoturbated humus-impregnated peat-mucky gleyzems are developed from loamy substrates, and gleyed soddy podburs are developed from loamy sandy substrates; (2) the low-mountain zone of a creeping alder forest (the forest-tundra zone?) of the Low Arctic at the heights of 400–700 m a.s.l., where mucky-gray-humus humus-impregnated podzolized gleyzems are developed under tundra patches, cryoturbated peat-mucky high-humus-impregnated podzolized gleyzems are developed under creeping alder thickets, and pedoliths are exposed in the zones of landslides; and (3) the mountain Middle Arctic zone at elevations above 700 m a.s.l., where very thin soil films predominate; gray-humus cryometamorphic lithozems are developed from the eluvium of magmatic rocks, and humus-impregnated cryometamorphic soils with quicksand suprapermafrost horizons are developed from the eluvium of hard sedimentary rocks.


Low Arctic oceanic-continental climate altitudinal soil zones elementary pedogenic processes soil properties 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    V. T. Balobaev, Geothermal State of Permafrost in the Lithosphere of Northern Asia (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1991) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yu. P. Baranova and S. F. Biske, Northeast of the USSR. History of the Development of the Relief in Siberia and the Far East (Nauka, Moscow, 1964) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. V. Belikovich, A. V. Galanin, O. M. Afonina, and I. I. Makarova, Vegetation of Specially Protected Territories in Chukotka (BSI DVO RAN, Vladivostok, 2006) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. N. Gorodkov, “Geobotanic and soil studies on the Chukotka Peninsula,” Vestn. Dal’nevost. fil. Akad. Nauk SSSR, No. 19, 27–47 (1936).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. V. Goryachkin, Soil Cover of the North: Spatial Patterns, Genesis, Ecology, and Evolution (GEOS, Moscow, 2010) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. A. Grishina and D. S. Orlov, “A system of indices of the humus state of soils,” in Problems of Soil Science (Nauka, Moscow, 1978), pp. 42–47 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. N. Kaplina, Cryogenic Slope Processes (Nauka, Moscow, 1965) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. A. Karavaeva, “Soils and the soil cover on the tops of the Chukotka upland,” in Geography of Soils and Geochemistry of Landscapes. Collection of Papers Devoted to the Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of M.A. Glazovskaya (APR, Moscow, 2012), pp. 412–431 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. E. Katenin, “Geobotanic studies in Chukotka,” Bot. Zh. 59(11), 1583–1595 (1974).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (Oikumena, Smolensk, 2004) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yu. P. Kozhevnikov, “Differentiation of vegetation cover in the Amguema basin (Chukotka),” Bot. Zh. 83(6), 90–101 (1998).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. N. Konishchev, V. V. Rogov, and G. N. Shchurina, “The impact of cryogenic factors on primary minerals (the results of experimental studies),” in Problems of Geocryology, Vol. V, 50–60 (Moscow, 1976) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    O. S. Konnova, “Some crystal optic studies of seasonally freezing rocks,” in Seasonal Soil Freezing and Application of Ice for Construction Purposes (Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1957), pp. 67–81 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. T. Makarov, “Soils of the Anadyr River basin,” Tr. VNIIUA im. K.K. Gedroitsa, No. 19, 132–178 (1937).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. P. Mel’nikov, A. N. Khimenkov, A. V. Brushkov, A. N. Vlasov, D. B. Volkov-Bogorodskii, and V. V. Samosonova, Cryogenic Geosystems: Problems of Studies and Modeling (Izd. “Geo”, Novosibirsk, 2010) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fundamentals of Geocryology. Part 1. Physicochemical Basics of Geocryology (Izd. Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 1995) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fundamentals of Geocryology. Part 2. Lithogenetic Geocryology (Izd. Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 1996) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. I. Perel’man, Geochemistry of Lanscape (Vysshaya shkola, Moscow, 1975) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Applied Climatic Reference Book on the Northeast of the USSR (Magadan, 1960) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    V. I. Savich, “On the soil cover of Chukotka in the Anadyr River basin,” Dokl. TSKhA, No. 99, 73–77 (1964).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    North of the Far East (The Environment and Natural Resources of the USSS) (Nauka, Moscow, 1970) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    V. B. Sochava, “On spotty tundra in the Anadyr region, Tr. Polyarn. Komis. AN SSSR,” No. 2, pp. 51–68 (1930).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    V. O. Targulian, Soil Formation and Weathering in Cold Humid Areas (Nauka, Moscow, 1971) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. O. Targulian and M. I. Gerasimova, World Reference Base for Soil Resources: The Basis for International Classification and Correlation of Soils (Tov. nauchn. izd. KMK, Moscow, 2007) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. D. Tonkonogov, Automorphic Pedogenesis in Tundra and Taiga Zones of the East European and West Siberian Plains (Pochv. inst. im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, Moscow, 2010) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    I. V. Tyurin, “Some results of the work on comparative study of humus composition in soils of the USSR,” Tr. Pocvh. Inst. im. V.V. Dokuchaeva, 38, 5–45 (1951).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    B. A. Yurtsev, “Some Problems of Botanic Geography of the Northeastern Asia,” Bot. Zh., 62(6), 832–847 (1977).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. A. Yurtsev, “Botanical-geographic characterization of southern Chukotka,” in Komarovskie chteniya (Dal’nevost. Nauchn. Tsentr, Vladivostok, 1978), No. XXVI, 3–62 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. A. Yurtsev, A. I. Tolmachev, and O. V. Rebristaya, “Floristic delineation and division of the Arctic. The Arctic floristic region,” in Reports to the XII Intern. Botan. Congr. (Nauka, Leningrad, 1978), pp. 9–104 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. G. Bockheim, “Properties and relative age of southwestern Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, N.W.T., Canada,” Arct. Alp. Res. 11, 289–306 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. G. Bockheim, “Properties and classification of some desert soils in coarse-textured glacial drift in the Arctic and Antarctic,” Geoderma 24(1), 45–69 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. J. Evans and B. H. Cameron, “Chronosequences of soils developed from granitic morainal material, Baffin Island, N.W.T,” Can. J. Soil Sci. 59, 203–210 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. M. Kimble (Ed.), Cryosols. Permafrost-Affected Soils (Springer-Verlag, 2004).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. E. Osterkamp and V. E. Romanovsky, “Characteristics of changing permafrost temperatures in Alaskan Arctic, USA,” Arct. Alp. Res. 28, 267–273 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. C. F. Tedrow, Soils of Polar Regions (N.J. Univ. Press, New Brunswick, 1977).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. L. Washburn, Periglacial Processes and Environments (Edward Arnold, London, 1973).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    IUSS Working Group WRB, World Reference Base for Soil Resources. A Framework for International Classification, Correlation and Communication (World Soil Resources Report 103) (FAO, Rome, 2006).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. A. Karavaeva
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of GeographyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations