Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 119–131

Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

  • V. A. Demkin
  • B. N. Zolotareva
  • T. S. Demkina
  • T. E. Khomutova
  • N. N. Kashirskaya
  • M. V. El’tsov
  • S. N. Udal’tsov
Genesis and Geography of Soils

Abstract

Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200–1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30–50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100–200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. L. Aleksandrovskii and E. I. Aleksandrovskaya, Soil Evolution and the Geographic Environment (Nauka, Moscow, 2005) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Archaeological Encyclopaedia of Volgograd Oblast (Izd. VolGU, Volgograd, 2009) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. V. Borisov, T. S. Demkina, and V. A. Demkin, Paleosols and Climate of the Ergeni Uplain in the Bronze Epoch (IV-II ka BC) (Nauka, Moscow, 2006) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. V. Borisov, M. V. El’tsov, T. S. Demkina, et al., “Paleosols and Environmental Conditions of the Northern Ergeni Upland in the Sarmatian Epoch,” in Nizhnevolzh. Arkheol. Vestn. (Volgograd), No. 5, 117–125 (2002).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. V. Vinogradov and E. D. Mamedov, “Changes in the Climate and Landscapes of the Amu Darya-Syr Darya Interfluve (according to Archaeological and Paleogeographic Data),” in The Aral Crisis (Moscow, 1991), pp. 66–75 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. N. Gennadiev, Soils and Time: Models of Development (Izd. Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 1990) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. A. Demkin, Paleopedology and Archaeology: Integration in Studying the History of Nature and Human Society (ONTI PNTs RAN, Pushchino, 1997) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. A. Demkin, “Buried Soils of Defense Lines of Ancient Russia and the Problems of Ancient and Recent History of Soil Formation,” Pochvovedenie, No. 10, 1224–1234 (1999) [Eur. Soil Sci. 42 (10), 1094–1104 (1999)].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. A. Demkin, L. A. Gugalinskaya, A. O. Alekseev, et al., Paleosols as Indicators of the Biosphere Evolution (NIA Priroda, Moscow, 2007) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    V. A. Demkin, T. S. Demkina, A. O. Alekseev, et al., Paleosols and Climate of the Lower Volga Steppes in the 1st-4th Centuries AD (ONTI PNTs RAN, Pushchino, 2009) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. A. Demkin, T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, et al., “Izmenenie Transformation of Soils and Environmental Conditions in the Semidesert Low Volga Region within the Past 4000 Years,” Pochvovedenie, No. 3, 271–283 (2004) [Eur. Soil Sci. 37 (3), 230–241 (2004)].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. A. Demkin, M. I. Dergacheva, A. V. Borisov, et al., “Soil Evolution and Climate Change in the Semidesert Zone of Eastern Europe during the Late Holocene,” Pochvovedenie, No. 2, 148–157 (1998) [Eur. Soil Sci. 31 (2), 133–143 (1998)].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. A. Demkin, N. N. Kashirskaya, T. S. Demkina, et al., “Paleosol Studies of Burial Mounds in the Ilovlya River Valley (the Privolzhskaya Upland),” Pochvovedenie, No. 2, 133–145 (2008) [Eur. Soil Sci. 41 (2), 115–127 (2008)].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. A. Demkin, I. V. Sergatskov, A. O. Alekseev, and M. V. El’tsov, “Paleosols of Burial Site Kolobovka-3 in Volgograd Oblast,” in Materials on Archaeology of Volga-Don Steppes (Izd. VolGU, Volgograd, 2001), No. 1, pp. 64–71 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, and V. A. Demkin, “Microbial Communities in the Paleosols of Archaeological Monuments in the Desert-Steppe Zone,” Pochvovedenie, No. 9, 1117–1126 (2000) [Eur. Soil Sci. 33 (9), 978–986 (2000)].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, and V. A. Demkin, “Microbiological Study of Paleosols Buried under Kurgans in the Desert-Steppe Zone of the Volga-Don Interfluve,” Pochvovedenie, No. 7, 853–859 (2004) [Eur. Soil Sci. 37 (7), 743–748 (2004)].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. S. Demkina, T. E. Khomutova, N. N. Kashirskaya, et al., “Characteristics of Microbial Communities in Steppe Paleosols Buried under Kurgans of the Sarmatian Time (I-IV Centuries AD),” Pochvovedenie, No. 7, 836–846 (2009) [Eur. Soil Sci. 42 (7), 778–787 (2009)].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. S. Demkina, T. E. Khomutova, N. N. Kashirskaya, et al., “Microbiological Investigations of Paleosols of Archeological Monuments in the Steppe Zone,” Pochvovedenie, No. 2, 213–220 (2010) [Eur. Soil Sci. 43 (2), 194–201 (2010)].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. I. Dergacheva, Archaeological Soil Science (Sib. otd. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Novosibirsk, 1997) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu. M. Dmitruk, Zh. N. Matviishina, and I. I. Slyusarchuk, “Methodological Specificity of Soil Profile Morphometry in the Study of Zonal and Buried Soils,” in Climate Changes, Soils, and the Environment (Belgorod, 2009), pp. 30–34 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. V. Ivanov, The Holocene Evolution of Soils in the Steppe Zone (Nauka, Moscow, 1992) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. G. Maev, S. A. Maeva, and Yu. A. Karpychev, “The Aral Sea in the Holocene,” in Aral Crisis (Moscow, 1991), pp. 76–86 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. S. Orlov, O. N. Biryukova, and N. I. Sukhanova, Organic Matter in Soils of the Russian Federation (Nauka, Moscow, 1996) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. S. Pesochina, Extended Abstract of Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (Moscow, 2004).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. N. Plekhanova and V. A. Demkin, “Paleosols of Kurgans of the Early Iron Age in the Transural Steppe Zone,” Pochvovedenie, No. 1, 5–16 (2008) [Eur. Soil Sci. 41 (1), 1–12 (2008)].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ya. G. Ryskov and V. A. Demkin, The Holocene Evolution of Soils and the Environment of Steppes in the Southern Urals (ONTI PNTs RAN, Pushchino, 1997) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. S. Skripkin, History of Volgograd Region from the Stone Age to the Golden Horde Time (Izdatel’, Volgograd, 2008) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. E. Khomutova, T. S. Demkina, and V. A. Demkin, “Assessment of the Total and Active Microbial Biomasses in Subkurgan Paleosols of Different Ages,” Mikrobiologiya 3(2), 241–247 (2004).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y. Enzel, R. Bookman, D. Sharon, et al., “Late Holocene Climates of the Near East Deduced from Dead Sea Level Variations and Modern Winter Rainfall,” Quat. Res. 60, 263–273 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. A. Demkin
    • 1
  • B. N. Zolotareva
    • 1
  • T. S. Demkina
    • 1
  • T. E. Khomutova
    • 1
  • N. N. Kashirskaya
    • 1
  • M. V. El’tsov
    • 1
  • S. N. Udal’tsov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil ScienceRussian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow oblastRussia

Personalised recommendations