Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 194–201

Microbiological investigations of paleosols of archeological monuments in the steppe zone

  • T. S. Demkina
  • T. E. Khomutova
  • N. N. Kashirskaya
  • I. V. Stretovich
  • V. A. Demkin
Soil Biology

Abstract

Microbiological studies of the paleosols of archeological monuments (burial mounds) of the Neolithic, Bronze, Early Iron, and Middle Ages (the fourth millennium BC to the fourteenth century AD) located in the dry and desert steppe of the Lower Volga River basin were conducted. The microbial communities that existed at the time of creating the burial mounds were shown to be preserved up to the present time. This fact was confirmed by the regularities of the distribution of the microorganisms in the “mound-buried soil” system and by the data on the determination of the age for the microbial fraction of the paleosols using the method of 14C atomic mass spectrometry. The total biomass of the microbial communities in the paleosols amounted to 20–40% of the microbial biomass in their background analogues. In all the paleosols, a special pool of viable microorganisms was present. In the microbial community of the paleosols, the biomass of the active microorganisms corresponded to 0.30–41.0% of the biomass in the present-day soil; the content of mycelium of microscopic fungi composed 43–50% of that in the recent soil. In the mycelium structure in the paleosols, the share of the dark-colored mycelium increased to 98–100%. The microbiological parameters that give a contrasting characterization of the state of the microbial communities in the soils during the arid and humid climatic periods were revealed. The changes of the arid and humid climatic epochs were reflected in the structure of the microbial communities in the paleosols at the ecological-trophic, metabolic, and genetic levels.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. L. Aleksandrovskii and E. I. Aleksandrovskaya, Soil Evolution and the Geographic Environment (Nauka, Moscow, 2005) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. D. Anan’eva, E. V. Blagodatskaya, D. B. Orlinskii, and T. N. Myakshina, “Methodological Aspects of Determination of Substrate-Induced Respiration of Soil Microorganisms,” Pochvovedenie, No. 11, 72–77 (1993).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. V. Bukharin, A. L. Gintsburg, Yu. M. Romanova, and G. I. El-Registan, Mechanisms of Survival of Bacteria (Meditsina, Moscow, 2005) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. B. Vainshtein and E. B. Kudryashova, “About Nanobacteria,” Mikrobiologiya 69(2), 163–174 (2000).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. A. Demkin, L. A. Gugalinskaya, A. O. Alekseev, et al., Paleosols as Indicators of the Biosphere Evolution (NIA Priroda, Moscow, 2007) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. A. Demkin, T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, et al., “Transformation of Soils and Environmental Conditions in the Semidesert Low Volga Region within the Past 4000 Years,” Pochvovedenie, No. 3, 271–283 (2004) [Eur. Soil Sci. 37 (3), 230–241 (2004)].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, and V. A. Demkin, “Microbiological Study of Paleosols Buried under Kurgans in the Desert-Steppe Zone of the Volga-Don Interfluve,” Pochvovedenie, No. 7, 853–859 (2004) [Eur. Soil Sci. 37 (7), 743–748(2004)].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, and V. A. Demkin, “Microbial Communities in the Paleosols of Archaeological Monuments in the Desert-Steppe Zone,” Pochvovedenie, No. 9, 1117–1126 (2000) [Eur. Soil Sci. 33 (9), 978–986 (2000)].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, M. V. El’tsov, and V. A. Demkin, “Comparative Characterization of Microbial Communities in Kurgans, Paleosols Buried under them, and Background Surface Soils in the Steppe Zone of the Lower Volga Region,” Pochvovedenie, No. 6, 738–748 (2007) [Eur. Soil Sci. 40 (6), 665–675 (2004)].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. S. Demkina and T. G. Mirchink, “Determination of Fungal Biomass in Soils with the Method of Membrane Filters,” Mikol. Fitopatol. 17(6), 517–520 (1983).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. S. Demkina, T. E. Khomutova, A. V. Borisov, and V. A. Demkin, “Microbiological Studies of Paleosols under Burial Mounds in the Ilovlya River Valley,” in Materials on Archeology of the Volga-Don Steppe Areas (Izd. VolGU, Volgograd, 2004), No. 2, pp. 87–95 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. G. Zvyagintsev, D. A. Gilichinskii, S. A. Blagodatskii, et al., “Duration of Preservation of Microorganisms in Frozen Sediments and Buried Soils,” Mikrobiologiya 54(1), 155–161 (1985).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. P. Zolotun, Extended Abstract of Doctoral Dissertation in Agriculture (Kiev, 1974).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. N. Kashirskaya, Extended Abstract of Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (Voronezh, 2006).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. A. Krupenikov, Soil Cover of Moldova: Past, Present, Management, and Forecast (Shtinitsa, Chisinau, 1992) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    O. E. Marfenina, E. V. Gorbatovskaya, and M. V. Gorlenko, “Mycological Characterization of Cultural Layers in Ancient Russian Settlements,” Mikrobiologiya, No. 6, 855–859 (2001).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. I. Nikitin and E. S. Nikitina, Self-Purification Processes in the Environment and Parasitic Bacteria of the Bdellovibrio genus, (Moscow, 1978) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z. A. Savost’yanova and V. D. Nashchokin, “On the History of Soils in the Steppe Zone of Khakassia,” in Soil Conditions for Planting Shelterbelts (Krasnoyarsk, 1974), pp. 7–35 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    I. V. Stretovich, “Contents and Structure of the Mycelium of Microscopic Fungi in Buried Paleosols and Surface Soils of the Steppe Zone (the Anna Ioanovna Rampart and the Aksai-3 Burial Site), in Proc. of the II (XVIII) All-Russia Archeological Congress in Suzdal, Vol. III (IARAN, Moscow, 2008), pp. 408–410 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. M. Khlebnikova, D. A. Gilichinskii, D. G. FedorovDavydov, and E. A. Vorob’eva, “Quantitative Assessment of Microorganisms in Permafrost Deposits and Buried Soils,” Mikrobiologiya 59(1), 148–155 (1990).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. E. Khomutova, T. S. Demkina, and V. A. Demkin, “Assessment of the Total and Active Microbial Biomass in Paleosols Buried under Kurgans of Different Ages,” Mikrobiologiya 73(2), 241–247 (2004).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. E. Khomutova, N. N. Kashirskaya, T. S. Demkina, et al., “Dynamics of the Microbial Biomass in Paleosols Buried under Kurgans of the Desert-Steppe Zone in Relation to Climatic Fluctuations,” in Ecology and Soils. Lectures and Reports at the VIII All-Russia School Session, Vol. V (ONTI PNTs RAN, Pushchino, 2006), pp. 271–277 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. P. E. Anderson and K. H. Domsch, “A Physiological Method for the Quantitative Measurement of Microbial Biomass in Soils,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 10(3), 215–221 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    COHORT Software. 1986, 1990. Costat version 4.21. Berkeley, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. S. Demkina, T. E. Khomutova, N. N. Kashirskaya, et al., “Age and Activation of Microbial Communities in Soils Under Burial Mounds and in Recent Surface Soils of Steppe Zone,” Eur. Soil Sci. 41(13), 1439–1447 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. H. Findlay, “The Use of Phospholipids Fatty Acids to Determine Microbial Community Structure,” in Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual, Vol. 4.1.4, 1–17 (1996).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. I. Friedmann (Ed.), Antarctic microbiology, J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, (1993).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Frostegard, A. Tunlid, and E. Baath, “Microbial Biomass Measured as Total Lipid Phosphate in Soils of Different Organic Content,” J. Microbiol. Methods 14, 151–163 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. E. Khomutova, T. S. Demkina, A. V. Borisov, et al., “An Assessment of Changes in Properties of Steppe Kurgan Paleosols in Relation to Prevailing Climates over Recent Millennia,” Quat. Res. 67(3) 328–336 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. M. Tiedje, S. Asuming-Brempong, K. Nuesslein, et al., “Opening the Black Box of Microbial Diversity,” Appl. Soil Ecol. 13 109–122 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. S. Demkina
    • 1
  • T. E. Khomutova
    • 1
  • N. N. Kashirskaya
    • 1
  • I. V. Stretovich
    • 1
  • V. A. Demkin
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems of Soil ScienceRussian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow oblastRussia

Personalised recommendations