Impact of a Dopant Impurity Electronic Structure on Physical Properties, Defect Structure, and Features of Lithium Niobate Doping Technology
The macro- and microstructure of doped LiNbO3 crystals is studied, their transmission spectra are investigated, and the effective coefficients characterizing the dopant impurity distribution are determined. We analyze the literature data on phase diagrams of the ternary system Li2O–Nb2O5–dopant oxide and the electron configurations of dopant elements, and the results suggest that this can be used as a basis for designing technological conditions for growing doped lithium niobate crystals and predicting their quality. With p‑elements (boron), structurally and compositionally uniform LiNbO3 crystals can be grown, with the doping impurity not being incorporated in the crystal. s- and d-metals (magnesium and zinc) have a similar effect on the melt and properties of resulting LiNbO3 crystals, which have periodic domain structures and similar types of point defects. Due to their electronic structure, f-metals (cerium) bring the melt to such a structure that this enables the formation of a periodic domain structure in LiNbO3 crystals during their growth.
The work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (research topic no. 0226-IC-2018-0004, registration number # АААА-А18-118022190125-2), and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant no. 18-03-00231-а).
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare that they do not have any conflicts of interest.
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