Imaging in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine
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Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are modern methods for visualization in diagnostic nuclear medicine. SPECT is known as a workhorse in cardiology, and PET is the gold standard in oncology. The development of nuclear medicine is provided by cooperation of physicists, mathematicians, biologists, medical doctors, and radio-chemists. In spite of extensive clinical applications, several problems may lead to false diagnoses. In particular, the correction of attenuation of gamma radiation in human organs must be taken into account. For interpretation and evaluation of such an effect on the clinical results, we perform physico-mathematical simulation of the SPECT diagnostics in cardiology in the absence and presence of the correction of attenuation. A brief review of the state-of-the art is presented. The simulation employs the first Russian anthropomorphic mathematical phantom that describes the distribution of radio-pharmacological agent (99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) in chest organs of a typical male patient. A model for calculation of raw images is developed with allowance for attenuation of radiation in biological tissues and the effect of collimator and detector. The results of the proposed models and calculated images are compared with clinical images obtained at the Meshalkin Institute of Circulation Pathology (Novosibirsk) and Myasnikov Institute of Clinical Cardiology (Moscow). Statistical algorithms are developed for the solution of the inverse problem of image reconstruction based on the entropy principle. The clinical and physico-mathematical approaches are compared in the evaluation of the effect of correction on the quality of reconstructed images of the left ventricle of myocardium.
This work was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 17-52-14004 ANF_a).
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